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Pollen viability among genders and limitation of female seed production in a natural trioecious population of the circumpolar cushion plant Silene acaulis was examined. Pollen viability was estimated by an in vitro pollen germination experiment. Both male and hermaphrodite flowers displayed large variation in pollen viability (0–53% in hermaphrodite and 0–54% in male flowers). There was a significant difference between genders in pollen viability: male plants had on average higher pollen viability than hermaphrodite plants. Resource and pollen limitation of seed production was studied by an experiment consisting of three treatments; (I) hand-pollination and removal of all other flowers on the cushion, (II) hand-pollination without removal of other flowers, and (III) open pollination without removal of flowers. Hand-pollination increased seed production, whereas removal of flowers had no effect on seed production. Abortion of pollinated ovules during seed development and seed mass did not differ among treatments. To control for effect of fruit number on seed production, data from naturally pollinated individuals was used. There was a positive correlation between both total number of seeds and fruit number, mean seed number per fruit and fruit number, respectively. These results indicate that seed production of 5. acaulis is mainly limited by pollen availability whereas resource competition between fruits is not important as a limiting factor. The possible role of male quality differences between genders and pollen limitation of seed production for maintenance of trioecious reproductive systems is discussed.