Upper montane forest (UMF) within Doi Inthanon National Park, Northern Thailand, was investigated by means of fifty, 40 × 40 m stratified random plots situated between 2080 and 2565 m altitude. The aim was to address a number of community ecological questions concerning woody species composition and structural heterogeneity of the forest. A total of 7474 individuals of trees and woody climbers ≥ 15 cm gbh (girth at breast height) were included in the study and these were identified to 47 species, 39 genera and 26 families. The average density was 934 individuals/ha and the average stem basal area was 71.8 m2/ha. The most important species were: Quercus eumorpha, Sjzygium angkae, Litsea martabanica, Helicia nilagirica, Lindera caudata, Schima wallichii, Osmanthus fiagrans, Eurya acuminata, Myrsine semiserrata and Ilex umbellulata and the most important families were Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Myrtaceae. Altitude was the most important environmental variable explaining species composition and vegetation structure. Most of the calculated vegetation variables showed significant correlation with altitude: species richness, family richness, diversity, density and crown cover declined with altitude, average tree height was uncorrelated with altitude and basal area increased with altitude. An analysis of size class distributions indicated good forest conditions and reverse-J-shaped age class distribution of most species.