The mushroom diversity was studied for 14 months in Edo State, southwestern Nigeria. A total of 76 macrofungi tantamount to 333 fruit bodies were encountered, 74% of which were identified and named. The basidiomycetes and members of the family Tricholomataceae were the best represented taxa while species on wood-based substrates made up 66% of the total mushroom taxa. The monthly mushroom abundance profile, diversity and species richness for each sampled plot correlated with local meteorological factors, age of the sampled sites and distribution of wood-based substrates. Jaccard, Sorensen and Bray–Curtis similarity index values showed that plots A and D, representing young actively managed and old abandoned rubber tree plantations, respectively, were the most dissimilar in mushroom composition. The hypersensitive response of macrofungal fruit bodies to climate variables qualify mushrooms as veritable biomonitors or bioindicators of climate change. This study supported earlier reports that rubber agroforests are a depauperate pool of utilitarian mushrooms.