The diversity of the genus Mantisalca in southwest Europe is the subject of much controversy. The present taxonomic revision of the genus on the Iberian Peninsula allows four species to be recognized, whose morphological variability is described and various synonyms are typified. A new species is described, M. cabezudoi Ruiz de Clavijo and Devesa, endemic to southeast Spain. The name Microlonchus spinulosus Rouy is reinstated for a species endemic to the central and east Iberian Peninsula, for which a new combination is made: Mantisalca spinulosa (Rouy) Ruiz de Clavijo and Devesa. A diagnostic key to the taxa is given.