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The largest family of lichen-forming fungi, the Parmeliaceae, is reviewed. It includes 79 genera in current use and ca 2726 species, a large majority of which belong to one of five main clades: the parmelioid, cetrarioid, usneoid, alectorioid and hypogymnioid. However, 21 genera are positioned outside these clades, and four genera in current use still lack DNA- data. The family has been shown to be monophyletic and the generic classification is relatively well-settled compared with other lecanoralean families. Each clade and its genera are presented here with the latest results from phylogenetic analyses and current taxonomy. In addition, a historical outline of the family and its most prominent researchers is provided.