• Exell A. W. 1944. Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tomé (with Principe and Annobón). Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.
  • Exell A. W. 1963. Angiosperms of the Cambridge Annobon Island Expedition. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. 3: 95118.
  • Figueiredo E. et al. 2011. Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia 41: 4182.
  • Funk V. A. et al. 2005. The importance of vouchers. Taxon 54: 127129.
  • Hiepko P. 1987. The collections of the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B) and their history. Englera 7: 219252.
  • Hutchinson J. and Dalziel J. M. 1928. Flora of west tropical Africa. Vol. 1. – Crown Agents for the Colonies.
  • Keay R. W. J. 1958. – In: Hutchinson J. and Dalziel J. M. (eds), Revision of flora of west tropical Africa, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. – Crown agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • McNeill J. et al. 2006. International code of botanical nomen clature, Vienna code. – Reg. Veg.
  • Mildbraed J. 1922. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1910–1911, Band II: Botanik. – Verlag von Klinkhardt und Biermann.
  • Müller Argoviensis J. 1864. Neue Euphorbiaceen des Herbarium Hooker in Kew (Schluss). Flora 47: 433448.
  • Pax F. and Hoffmann K. 1914. Euphorbiaceae–Acalypheae– Mercurialinae and Additamentum V. – In: Engler A. (ed.), das Pflanzenreich, Heft 63. Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 1473.
  • Pax F. and Hoffmann K. 1923. Euphorbiaceae africanae. – In: Engler A. (ed.), Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 58: 3940.
  • Pax F. and Hoffmann K. 1924. Euphorbiaceae-Additamentum VII. – In: Engler A. (ed.), das Pflanzenreich IV, 147, XVII, Heft 85. Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 179204.
  • Radcliffe-Smith A. 2001. Genera Euphorbiacearum. – R. Bot. Gard. Kew.
  • Smith A. R. 1987. – In: Polhill R. M. (ed.), Flora of tropical east Africa, Euphorbiaceae. Vol. 1. – A. A. Balkema.
  • Velayos M. et al. 2013. Checklist of vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa in press.