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Keywords:

  • amnesia;
  • CNS angiitis;
  • CNS vasculitis;
  • memory

Abstract

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an idiopathic vasculitis of the small to medium vessels that often eludes diagnosis because of its variable signs and symptoms. A 36-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive memory loss. Neurological examination revealed only severe cognitive deficits including anterograde amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple ring-enhancing lesions involving the left frontal lobe and uncus and bilateral thalami. Stereotactic biopsy showed findings consistent with CNS angiitis. Further workup revealed no evidence of systemic disease. We report the first case of biopsy-proven PACNS presenting as profound isolated anterograde amnesia.