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Keywords:

  • male;
  • osteoporosis;
  • risk

Abstract

Background:  Osteoporosis (OP) is a growing health problem not only in women but also in men.

Subjects and methods:  This study was carried out on 100 healthy men, age range 30–65 years (mean ± SD, 44.65 ± 8.3). All were randomly recruited from Assiut city during the period January 2005 to January 2006. Complete clinical history included occupational history, smoking habit, physical activity and calcium intake. Complete clinical examination and anthropometric measurments were done. Laboratory investigations for serum calcium, phosphorus and osteocalcin were performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by calcaneal ultrasound.

Results:  Sixty-three percent of participants had normal BMD, 37% had low BMD, (26% had quantitative bone ultrasound [QUS] T-score –1 to –2.5 and 11% had QUS T-score ≤ –2.5). Smoking and low physical activity were risk factors for low BMD. Significant positive correlations were found between BMD and body mass index, serum calcium, and osteocalcin and negative correlation with phosphorus. We concluded that low BMD occurs with high frequency in Egyptian men. Smoking, physical inactivity and low body index are significant risk factors. Low serum calcium, low serum osteocalcin and high serum phosphorus are biochemical risk factors of low BMD in males.