Development of a questionnaire for identification of the risk factors for osteoarthritis of the knees in developing countries. A pilot study in Iran and Bangladesh. An ILAR–COPCORD phase III study
Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010
© 2010 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Volume 13, Issue 3, pages 203–214, August 2010
How to Cite
HAQ, S. A., DAVATCHI, F., DAHAGHIN, S., ISLAM, N., GHOSE, A., DARMAWAN, J., CHOPRA, A., YU, Z. Q., DANS, L. F. and RASKER, J. J. (2010), Development of a questionnaire for identification of the risk factors for osteoarthritis of the knees in developing countries. A pilot study in Iran and Bangladesh. An ILAR–COPCORD phase III study. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 13: 203–214. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2010.01529.x
- Issue published online: 3 AUG 2010
- Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010
- knee osteoarthritis;
- risk factors
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent rheumatic disorders in the Asia-Pacific region. Identification of modifiable risk factors is important for development of strategies for primary and secondary prevention of knee OA.
Objective: Developing a core questionnaire for identification of risk factors of knee OA at the community level.
Methods: Steps performed: (1) item generation from literature, existing knee OA questionnaires and patient focus group discussions; (2) development of a preliminary APLAR-COPCORD English questionnaire; (3) translation into target language, back translation and development of a pre-final target language version; (4) adaptation of the pre-final target language version through tests of comprehensibility, content validity, test–retest reliability; and (5) finalization of the English questionnaire. Investigators in Bangladesh, Iran, China, Philippines and Indonesia participated in steps 1 and 2. Subsequent steps were carried out by Bangladeshi and Iranian investigators.
Results: Fifty-three items were generated. Fourteen were obtainable from physical examination and placed in an examination sheet. Two radiological items were not included. A preliminary English questionnaire comprising the remaining 37 items was constructed and translated into Bengali and Persian. The preliminary Bengali and Persian versions were adapted as a result of tests of comprehensibility, content validity and test–retest reliability. The English questionnaire was adapted through repeated exchange of ideas and experiences among participating investigators. A 35-item English core questionnaire was finally developed.
Conclusion: The questionnaires may be used to identify risk factors of knee OA in Asia-Pacific communities after validation and further adaptation. From these data strategies for primary and secondary prevention of knee OA can be developed.