Systemic lupus erythematosus remains a challenge because of its diverse presentations, variable natural history, and lack of uniform response to treatment. True remission is very rare. Reliance on corticosteroid treatment leads to unwanted long-term toxicity. Great advances have been made in the early detection of lupus nephritis and in treatment. Greater appreciation of cognitive impairment and of lupus myelitis is now possible. Pregnancy risks are better characterized. However, the greatest unmet challenge remains atherosclerosis.