• 1
    Lu C, Michaud CM, Gakidou E, Khan K, Murray CJL. Effect of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation on diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine coverage: an independent assessment. Lancet 2006; 368: 108895.
  • 2
    Low-Beer D, Afkhami H, Komatsu R, Banati P, Sempala M, Katz I, et al . Making performance-based funding work for health. Public Library of Science Medicine 2007; 4(8): e219.
  • 3
    Sustainable Development Network. A review of the use of output-based aid approaches. International Development Association , 2006. (accessed 3 May 2008).
  • 4
    The Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid. (accessed 3 May 2008).
  • 5
    Murray CJL, Frenk J, Evans T. The Global Campaign for the Health MDGs: challenges, opportunities, and the imperative of shared learning. Lancet 2007; 370: 101820.
  • 6
    Stoltenberg J. Delivering for women and children. Lancet 2008; 371: 12302.
  • 7
    Lagarde M, Haines A, Palmer N. Conditional cash transfers for improving uptake of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association 2007; 298: 190010.
  • 8
    Kane RL, Johnson PE, Town RJ, Butler M. A structured review of the effect of economic incentives on consumers’ preventive behavior. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004; 27: 32752.
  • 9
    Giuffrida A, Torgerson DJ. Should we pay the patient? Review of financial incentives to enhance patient compliance. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 7037.
  • 10
    Epstein AM, Lee TH, Hamel MB. Paying physicians for high-quality care. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350: 40610.
  • 11
    Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Performance Measures, Payment, and Performance Improvement Programs. Rewarding Provider Performance: Aligning Incentives in Medicare. Washington , DC : National Academies Press, 2007.
  • 12
    Petersen LA, Woodard LD, Urech T, Daw C, Sookanan S. Does pay-for-performance improve the quality of health care? Annals of Internal Medicine 2006; 145: 26572.
  • 13
    Eichler R. Can “Pay for Performance” Increase Utilization by the Poor and Improve the Quality of Health Services? Discussion paper for the first meeting of the Working Group on Performance-Based Incentives. Washington , DC : Center for Global Development, 2006; 5.
  • 14
    Bosch-Capblanch X, Abba K, Prictor M, Garner P. Contracts between patients and healthcare practitioners for improving patients’ adherence to treatment, prevention and health promotion activities. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007, Issue 2.
  • 15
    Chaix-Couturier C, Durand-Zaleski I, Jolly D, Durieux P. Effects of financial incentives on medical practice: results from a systematic review of the literature and methodological issues. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2000; 12: 13342.
  • 16
    Chien AT, Chin MH, Davis AM, Casalino LP. Pay for performance, public reporting, and racial disparities in health care: how are programs being designed? Medical Care Research and Review 2007; 64(5 Suppl): 283S304S.
  • 17
    Giuffrida A, Gosden T, Forland F, Kristiansen IS, Sergison M, Leese B, Pedersen L, Sutton M. Target payments in primary care: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1999, Issue 4.
  • 18
    Gosden T, Forland F, Kristiansen IS, Sutton M, Leese B, Giuffrida A, Sergison M, Pedersen L. Impact of payment method on behaviour of primary care physicians: a systematic review. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 2001; 6: 4455.
  • 19
    Sturm H, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Aaserud M, Oxman AD, Ramsay C, Vernby A, Kösters JP. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of financial incentives for prescribers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007, Issue 3.
  • 20
    Town R, Kane R, Johnson P, Butler M. Economic incentives and physicians’ delivery of preventive care: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005; 28: 23440.
  • 21
    Oxman AD, Guyatt GH. Validation of an index of the quality of review articles. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1991; 11: 12718.
  • 22
    Dudley RA, Frolich A, Robinowitz DL, Talavera JA, Broadhead P, Luft HS, McDonald K. Strategies to support quality-based purchasing: a review of the evidence. Technical Review Number 10. AHRQ Publication No. 04-0057, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality , 2004. (accessed 3 May 2008).
  • 23
    Rosenthal MB, Frank RG. What is the empirical basis for paying for quality in health care? Medical Care Research and Review 2006; 63: 13557.
  • 24
    Sempowski IP. Effectiveness of financial incentives in exchange for rural and underserviced area return-of-service commitments: systematic review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine 2004; 9: 828.
  • 25
    Lagarde M, Palmer N. The impact of contracting out on access to health services in low and middle income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, In press.
  • 26
    Lagarde M, Palmer N. Evidence from systematic reviews to inform decision making regarding financing mechanisms that improve access to health services for poor people. A policy brief prepared for the International Dialogue on Evidence-Informed Action to Achieve Health Goals in Developing Countries (IDEAHealth) Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2006. (accessed 21 Jan 2008).
  • 27
    Christianson J, Leatherman S, Sutherland K. Financial Incentives, Healthcare Providers and Quality Improvements. A Review of the Evidence. London : The Health Foundation, 2007. (accessed 2 May 2008).
  • 28
    Oxman AD, Fretheim A. Can paying for results help to achieve the MDGs? 2. A critical review of selected evaluations of results-based financing. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2009; 2: in press.