SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ainsworth, S., & Loizou, A. (2003). The effects of self-explaining when learning with text or diagrams. Cognitive Science, 27, 669681.
  • Alibali, M., & Di Russo, A. (1999). The function of gesture in learning to conut: More than keeping track. Cognitive Development, 14, 3756.
  • Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Pelletier, R. (1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4, 167207.
  • Atkinson, R. K., Renkl, A., & Merrill, M. M. (2003). Transitioning from studying examples to solving problems: Effects of self-explanation prompts and fading worked-out steps. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 774783.
  • Ayer, W. W., & Milson, J. L. (1993). The effect of note-taking and underlying on achievement in middle school life science. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 20, 9195.
  • Azmitia, M. (1988). Peer interaction and problem solving: When are two heads better than one? Child Development, 59, 8796.
  • Azvedo, R., Greene, J. A., Moos, D. C., Winters, F. I., & Godbole-Chaudhuri, P. (2006). Is externally-regulated learning by a human tutor effective in facilitating learning with hypermedia? In S. A.Barab, K. E.Hay & D. T.Hickey (Eds.), The 7th international conference of the learning sciences (pp. 1622). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Baker, M. (1994). A model for negotiation in teaching-learning dialogues. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 5, 199254.
  • Baker, M., De Vries, E., Lund, K., & Quignard, M. (2001). Computer mediated epistemic interactions for co-constructing scientific notions: Lessons learned from a five year research programme. Paper presented at the Proceedings of EuroCSCL 2001-European Perspectives on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Maastricht.
  • Barron, B. (2003). When smart groups fail. Journal of the Leanring Science, 12, 307359.
  • Bauersfeld, H. (1988). Interaction, construction, and knowledge: Alternative perspectives for mathematics education. In T.Cooney & D.Grouws (Eds.), Effective mathematics teaching (pp. 2746). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Bielaczyc, K., Pirolli, P., & Brown, A. L. (1995). Training in self-explanation and self-regulation strategies: Investigating the effects of knowledge acquisition activities on problem solving. Cognition and Instruction, 13, 221251.
  • Biswas, G., Leelawong, K., Schwartz, D., Vye, N., & Teachable Agents Group at Vanderbilt (2005). Learning by teaching: A new agent paradigm for educational software. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 19, 363392.
  • Bodemer, D., Ploetzner, R., Feuerlein, I., & Spada, H. (2004). The active integration of information during dynamic and interactive visualizations. Learning and Instruction, 14, 325341.
  • Brown, A., & Day, J. (1983). Macrorules for summarizing text: The development of expertise. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 114.
  • Cannon-Bowers, U. J. A., Salas, E., & Converse, S. (1993). Shared mental models in expert team decision making. In N. J.Castellan (Ed.), Individual and group decision making: Current issues (pp. 221246). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
  • Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 5581.
  • Chi, M. T. H. (2000). Self-explaining expository texts: The dual processes of generating inferences and repairing mental models. In R.Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 161238). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Chi, M. T. H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145182.
  • Chi, M. T. H., De Leeuw, N., Chiu, M. H., & LaVancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439477.
  • Chi, M. T. H., Roy, M., & Hausmann, R. G. M. (2008). Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively: Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning. Cognitive Science, 32, 301341.
  • Chi, M. T. H., Siler, S., Jeong, H., Yamauchi, T., & Hausmann, R. G. (2001). Learning from human tutoring. Cognitive Science, 25, 471533.
  • Chinn, C. A., & Malhorta, B. A. (2002). Epistemologically authentic inquiry in schools: A theoretical framework for evaluating inquiry tasks. Science Education, 86, 175218.
  • Cobb, P. (Ed.) (1994). Learning mathematics: Constructivist and interactionist theories of mathematical development. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
  • Coleman, E. B., Brown, A. L., & Rivkin, I. D. (1997). The effect of instructional explanations on learning from scientific texts. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6, 347365.
  • Conati, C., & VanLehn, K. A. (2000). Toward computer-based support of meta-cognitive skills: A computational framework to coach self-explanations. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 3984151.
  • Corbett, A., Wagner, A., Lesgold, S., Ulrich, H., & Stevens, S. (2006). The impact on learning of generating vs. selecting descriptions in analyzing algebra example solutions. Proceedings of the 7th international conference on learning sciences (pp. 99105). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Damon, W. (1991). Problems of direction in socially shared cognition. In L. B.Resnick, J. M.Levine & S. D.Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 384397). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Davis, E. (2003). Prompting middle school science students for productive reflection: Generic and directed prompts. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12, 91142.
  • Dawson, I. (2004). Time for chronology? Ideas for developing chronological understanding. Teaching History, 117, 1424.
  • Doymus, K. (2008). Teaching chemical equilibrium with the jigsaw technique. Research in Science Education, 38, 249260.
  • Ebert-May, D., Brewer, C., & Allred, S. (1997). Innovation in large lectures: Teaching for active learning. BioScience, 47, 601607.
  • Fuchs, L. D., Fuchs, D., Bentz, J., Phillips, N. B., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). The nature of student interactions during peer tutoring with and without prior training and experience. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 75103.
  • Graesser, A. C., & Person, N. K. (1994). Question-asking during tutoring. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 104137.
  • Graesser, A. C., Person, N. K., & Magliano, J. P. (1995). Collaborative dialogue patterns in naturalistic one-on-one tutoring. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 495522.
  • Greeno, J. (2006). Learning in activity. In K.Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 7996). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hausmann, R. G. M., & Chi, M. T. H. (2002). Can a computer interface support self-explaining? Cognitive Technology, 7, 414.
  • Hausmann, R., Chi, M. T. H., & Roy, M. (2004). Learning from collaborative problem solving: An analysis of three hypothesized mechanisms. In K. D.Forbus, D.Gentner & T.Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 547552). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Hausmann, R. G. M., Van De Sande, B., & VanLehn, K. (2008). Shall we explain? Augmenting learning from intelligent tutoring systems and peer collaboration. In B. P.Woolf, E.Aimeur, R.Nkambou & S.Lajoie (Eds.), Intelligent tutoring systems (pp. 636645). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  • Hausmann, R., & VanLehn, K. (2007). Self-explaining in the classroom: Learning curve evidence. Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 10671072). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Hume, G., Michael, J., Rovick, A., & Evens, M. (1996). Hinting as a tactic in one-on-one tutoring. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 5, 2349.
  • Igo, L. B., Bruning, R., & McCrudden, M. T. (2005). Exploring differences in students’ copy-and-paste decision making and processing: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 103116.
  • James, K. H., Humphrey, G. K., Vilis, T., Corrie, B., Baddour, R., & Goodale, M. A. (2002). “Active” and “passive” learning of three-dimension object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34, 383390.
  • Jeong, H., & Chi, M. T. H. (2007). Knowledge convergence and collaborative learning. Instructional Science, 35, 287315.
  • Kafai, Y. B. (2006). Playing and making games for learning: Instructionist and constructionist perspectives for game studies. Games and Culture, 1, 3640.
  • Kastens, K. A., & Liben, L. S. (2007). Eliciting self-explanations improves children’s performance on a field-based map skills task. Cognition and Instruction, 25, 4574.
  • Kiewra, K. A., & DuBois, N. F. (1991). Note-taking functions and techniques. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 240245.
  • King, A. (1992). Comparison of self-questioning, summarizing, and notetaking-review as strategies for learning from lectures. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 303323.
  • Klahr, D., & Nigam, M. (2004). The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction. Psychological Science, 15, 661667.
    Direct Link:
  • Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E. II, Spencer, V., & Fontana, J. (2003). Promoting success in high school world history: Peer tutoring versus guided notes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 5265.
  • Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mayer, R. E., & Wittrock, M. C. (1996). Problem solving transfer. In D. C.Berliner & R. C.Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 4762). New York: Macmillan.
  • McGregor, M., & Chi, M. T. H. (2002). Collaborative interactions: The process of joint production and individual reuse of novel ideas. In W. D.Gray & C. D.Schunn (Eds.), 24th annual conference of the cognitive science society. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • McNamara, D. S., Kintsch, E., Butler Songer, N., & Kintsch, W. (1996). Are good texts always better? Interactions of text coherence, background knowledge, and levels of understanding in learning from text. Cognition and Instruction, 14, 143.
  • Mestre, J. P. (2001). Implications of research on learning for the education of prospective science and physics teachers. Physics Education, 36, 4451.
  • Milrad, M. (2002). Using construction kits, modeling tools and system dynamics simulations to support collaborative discover learning. Educational Technology and Society, 5, 7687.
  • Mitrovic, A. (2005). Scaffolding answer explanation in a data normalization tutor. Facta universitatis - series: Electronics and Energetics, 18, 151163.
  • Moreno, R., Mayer, R. E., Spires, H. A., & Lester, J. C. (2001). The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents. Cognition and Instruction, 19, 177213.
  • Narayanan, N. H., & Hegarty, M. (2002). Multimedia design for communication of dynamic information. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 57, 279315.
  • Pass, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J. (2004). Cognitive load theory: Instructional implications of the interaction between information structures and cognitive architecture. Instructional Science, 32, 18.
  • Paterson, K. B., Liversedge, S. P., Filik, R., Juhasz, B. J., White, S. J., & Rayner, K. (2007). Focus identification during sentence comprehension Evidence from eye movements. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 14231445.
  • Pea, R. D., & Kurland, D. M. (1984). On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming. New Ideas Psychology, 2, 137168.
  • Ploetzner, R., Dillenbourg, P., Praier, M., & Traum, D. (1999). Learning by explaining to oneself and to others. In P.Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative learning: Cognitive and computational approaches (pp. 103121). Oxford, England: Elsevier.
  • Roscoe, R. D., & Chi, M. T. H. (2007a). Tutor learning: The role of explaining and responding to questions. Instructional Science, 36, 321350.
  • Roscoe, R. D., & Chi, M. T. H. (2007b). Understanding tutor learning: Knowledge-building and knowledge-telling in peer tutors’ explanations and questions. Review of Educational Research, 77, 534574.
  • Rummel, N., & Spada, H. (2005). Learning to collaborate: An instructional approach to protnoting collaborate problem solving in computer-medicated settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14 ( 2 ), 201241.
  • Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1998). Individual and social aspects of learning. Review of Research in Education, 23, 124.
  • Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1987). Knowledge telling and knowledge transforming in written composition. In S.Rosenberg (Ed.), Advances in applied psycholinguistics, Vol. 2. Reading, Writing, and Language Learning (pp. 142175). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schank, R. C. (1994). Active learning through multimedia. Spring: IEEE Multimedia, 6977.
  • Schwan, S., & Riempp, R. (2004). The cognitive benefits of interactive videos: Learning to tie nautical knots. Learning and Instruction, 14, 293305.
  • Schwartz, D. L., & Bransford, J. D. (1998). A time for telling. Cognition and Instruction, 16, 475522.
  • Shimmerlik, S. M., & Nolan, J. D. (1976). Reorganization and the recall of prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 779786.
  • Smallwood, J., Fishman, D., & Schooler, W. (2007). Counting the cost of an absent mind: Mind wandering as an underrecognized influence on educational performance. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14 (2), 230236, Psychonomic Society Publications.
  • Soller, A., Linton, F., Goodman, B., & Lesgold, A. (1999). Toward intelligent analysis and support of collabarative learning interaction. In the Proceeding of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education (pp. 7582). France: Le Mans.
  • Spires, H. A. (1993). Learning from a lecture: Effects of comprehension monitoring. Reading Research and Instruction, 32, 1930.
  • Suthers, D. D., & Hundhausen, C. D. (2003). An empirical study of the effects of representational guidance on collaborative learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12, 183219.
  • Sweller, J., & Cooper, G. A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 5989.
  • Teasley, S. (1995). The role of talk in children’s peer collaboration. Developmental Psychology, 31, 207220.
  • Tong, F. H., Marlin, S. G., & Frost, B. J. (1995). Congitive map formation in a 3D visual virtual world. Poster presented at the IRIS/PRECARN workshop, Vancouver, BC.
  • Trafton, J. G., & Trickett, S. B. (2001). Note-taking for self-explanation and problem solving. Human-Computer Interaction, 16, 138.
  • VanLehn, K., Graesser, A. C., Jackson, G. T., Jordan, P., Olney, A., & Rose, C. P. (2007). When are tutorial dialogues more effective than reading? Cognitive Science, 31, 362.
  • Weinberger, A., Ertl, B., Fischer, F., & Mandl, H. (2005). Epistemic and social scripts in computer-supported collaborative learning. Instructional Science, 33, 130.
  • Yetter, G., Gutkin, T. B., Galloway, A. M., Saunders, A., Sobansky, R. R., & Song, S. Y. (2006). Unstructured collaboration versus individual practice for complex problem solving: A cautionary tale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 74 (2), 137160.