The authors have no conflicts of interest.
Effects of Constructive Worry, Imagery Distraction, and Gratitude Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Pilot Trial
Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 193–206, July 2011
How to Cite
Digdon, N. and Koble, A. (2011), Effects of Constructive Worry, Imagery Distraction, and Gratitude Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Pilot Trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3: 193–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01049.x
- Issue online: 21 JUN 2011
- Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2011
- university students;
Background: There is mounting empirical evidence that poor sleep compromises well-being. Our study focused on university students who have persistent problems sleeping because their minds are racing with stimulating thoughts and worries. We evaluated three self-help interventions (constructive worry, imagery distraction, and a gratitude intervention) which were disseminated by e-mail. Methods: Forty-one participants (32 females) were randomly assigned to an intervention. Daily measures of sleep and pre-sleep worry and arousal were collected online during a baseline week followed by an intervention week. Results: Each intervention reduced worry and pre-sleep arousal, and improved sleep compared to baseline. One intervention did not differ from the others. Participants rated the interventions as moderately helpful. Conclusions: E-mailed self-help versions of constructive worry, imagery distraction, or a gratitude intervention helped university students quiet their minds and sleep better. This mode of delivery is feasible for broad distribution and at universities without access to sleep clinicians.