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Fig. S1. Time-course of the methanogenic substrates H2 and acetate (A) and of CH4, ferrous iron and sulfate (B) in rice soil pre-incubated under anoxic conditions before O2 treatment; mean values ± SE, n = 3.

Fig. S2. Temporal changes of the Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of H2-dependent methanogenesis (A) and acetate-dependent methanogenesis (B) after short-term (24 h) and long-term (72 h) O2 exposure and in the permanently anoxic control; mean values ± SE, n = 3. Gibbs free energies (ΔG) of CH4 production were calculated from the respective standard Gibbs free energies (ΔG0; H+ concentration = 1 M) and the actual concentrations of reactants and products using Nernst's equation (Thauer et al., 1997; Penning and Conrad, 2006). Partial pressures of gases were not corrected for fugacity. Acetate concentrations were applied as measured and not corrected for dissociation. The values of ΔG0 were calculated from the standard Gibbs energies of formation using the following two reactions: 4 H2 (g) + CO2 (g) [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] CH4 (g) + 2 H2O (l) (ΔG0 = −130.7 kJmol−1 CH4) CH3COO (aq) + H+ (aq) [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] CH4 (g) + CO2 (g) (ΔG0 = −75.7 kJmol−1 CH4)

Table S1. Analysis of clone library of archaeal 16S rRNA genes retrieved from soil microcosm of 24 h treatment at the 21th day after O2 stress and assignment of T-RFs.

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