Shellfish production is seriously affected by bacterial pathogens that cause high losses in hatcheries and in the aquaculture sector. A number of Vibrio species are considered important pathogens and have provoked severe mortality outbreaks. The pathologies caused by vibrios in bivalves have been described since the 1960s; however, over recent years, successive episodes of high mortality have been recorded due to these microorganisms. The present work provides an updated overview of the different studies performed in relation with the diversity of Vibrio spp. associated to bivalves. Special attention is given to the main Vibrio diseases and implicated species affecting the different life stages of cultured bivalves.