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Fig. S1. Growth of MED4 and MED4 RifR strains in media containing rifampicin. Some 108 cells of MED4 or MED4 RifR were inoculated into 25 ml PRO99SSW medium amended with rifampicin (5 μg ml−1) and grown under constant light as described in the legend to Fig. 1.

Fig. S2. Alignment of the MED4 WT (top, GenBank accession number NP_893602.1) and E. coli K12 (bottom, GenBank accession number NP_418414.1) RNA polymerase, β-subunit protein sequences. Sequences were aligned using the Emboss alignment tool (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/emboss/align/). The green shaded box denotes the correspondence between MED4 residue 437 and E. coli residue 572, a known mutational hotspot for rifampicin-resistance.

Fig. S3.Prochlorococcus strains MED4, MIT9313, MIT9215, NATL2A and Synechococcus stain WH8102 are resistant to naladixic acid. All cultures were grown in duplicate in PRO99SSW medium, with or without 50 µg ml−1 of nalidixic acid (NAL), at 21°C in either 10 µmol Q m−2 s−1 continuous light (NATL2A, WH8102, MIT9313) or 20 µmol Q m−2 s−1 continuous light (MED4, MIT9215). Culture growth was monitored daily by fluorometric detection of bulk chlorophyll autofluorescence over the course of the growth cycle using a Turner Designs 10-AU fluorometer.

Fig. S4. Alignment of the MED4 WT (top, GenBank accession number NP_893180.1) and E. coli K12 (bottom, GenBank accession number NP_416734.1) DNA gyrase subunit A protein sequences. Sequences were aligned using the Emboss alignment tool as for Fig. S2. The green shaded box denotes a mutational hotspot at position 83 of E. coli and the corresponding position (94) for MED4.

Table S1. Primer sets used for sequencing the rpoB gene of MED4RifR and the gyrA gene of MEDCiproR.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
EMI4_293_sm_FigS1-S4.pdf853KSupporting info item
EMI4_293_sm_TableS1.doc45KSupporting info item

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