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Yeast microbiota of raptors: a possible tool for environmental monitoring

Authors

  • Raimunda S. N. Brilhante,

    Corresponding author
    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Débora S. C. M. Castelo Branco,

    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Guilherme P. S. Duarte,

    1. School of Veterinary Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Science, State University of Ceará, Av. Paranjana, 1700. CEP: 60.740-903, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Manoel A. N. Paiva,

    1. School of Veterinary Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Science, State University of Ceará, Av. Paranjana, 1700. CEP: 60.740-903, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Carlos E. C. Teixeira,

    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • João P. O. Zeferino,

    1. School of Veterinary Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Science, State University of Ceará, Av. Paranjana, 1700. CEP: 60.740-903, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • André J. Monteiro,

    1. Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Rossana A. Cordeiro,

    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • José J. C. Sidrim,

    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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  • Marcos F. G. Rocha

    1. Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo, s/n, Rodolfo Teófilo. CEP: 60430270, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
    2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Science, State University of Ceará, Av. Paranjana, 1700. CEP: 60.740-903, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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E-mail brilhante@ufc.br; Tel. (+55) 85 3366 8319; Fax (+55) 85 3295 1736.

Summary

Twenty-two raptors from a rehabilitation centre were evaluated for the presence of yeasts prior to returning them to the wild, and the recovered Candida isolates were tested for in vitro antifungal susceptibility and phospholipase production. Samples were collected from the crop/lower esophagus and cloaca. In vitro antifungal susceptibility and phospholipase production of 21 Candida strains were assessed through broth microdilution and growth on egg yolk agar respectively. Twenty-seven isolates, belonging to seven species, were recovered from 16 tested birds, with C. albicans and C. famata as the most prevalent species. Three out of 21 isolates (2 C. albicans and 1 C. tropicalis) were simultaneously resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. As for phospholipase production, 8 (8/21) isolates (6 C. albicans, 1 C. famata and 1 C. parapsilosis) showed enzymatic activity. The most relevant finding in this study was the isolation of resistant Candida spp. from wild raptors that had never been submitted to antifungal therapy, which suggests exposure to environmental contaminants. Based on this, we propose the assessment of Candida spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of raptors as a tool for environmental monitoring.

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