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Fig. S1. Cellulose production by the spontaneous non-rdar mutants. Overnight LB cultures were streaked onto agar (1.5%) prepared without NaCl and supplemented after autoclaving with Calcofluor white/Evans blue solution (Sigma Aldrich) at 40 μg ml−1. Plates were incubated at room temperature in the dark for 48 h, and then imaged on UV trans-illuminator, as in Da Re and Ghigo (2006). Plates on the UV trans-illuminator table were photographed with a digital camera. To quantify fluorescence, cells were washed off plates with sterile distilled water; OD600 and fluorescence (ex. 360 ± 40 nm; em. 460 ± 40 nm) were measured with a microtitre plate reader. Numbers at the bottom of each panel represent relative fluorescence (expressed as fluorescence per unit of OD600). Averages of three independent cultures are shown plus/minus standard error.

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Fig. S2. The effect of rpoS S.Typhimurium 14028 on the non-rdar phenotypes of the Salmonella isolates. pWZ1 (a pWSK29 carrying a copy of rpoS amplified from S. Typhimurium 14028) was electroporated into each of the isolates of interest; pWSK29 vector was similarly electroporated as a control. Isolates of sv. Newport are from a tomato field on the Eastern Shore of Virginia (where outbreaks of salmonellosis are known to have originated), isolate of sv. Montevideo LJH519 is from a tomato outbreak. All three isolates of sv. Braenderup were isolated from a single outbreak of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of tomatoes, although each strain came from a different patient at the different points in the outbreak.

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Table S1. Strains and plasmids used in this study.

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Table S2. Primers used in this study.

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Table S3. Appearance of Salmonella isolates on Congo red-containing plates.

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Appendix S1. Materials and methods.

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