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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

On the basis of my own familiarity with the IRM as one of its former editors, I celebrate the journal's importance to me personally and to mission studies in the ecumenical family by selecting a few significant contributions for comment: “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission” by Raymond Fung; “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” by Professor Ion Bria; “Gospel, Cultures and Filipina Migrant Workers,” by Jane Corpuz-Brock; “Section III: The Earth is the Lord's”, from San Antonio; and “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, by Armin Zimmermann.

In 1979 I was given my first personal copy of the International Review of Mission by Orlando Costas, Director of the Latin American Center for Pastoral Studies, based in San José. With my having collaborated with him on mission publications in Latin America, he thought I would find the journal's global and ecumenical scope stimulating, and he could not have been more right. I remember vividly how I read that particular volume from cover to cover, completely drawn into the character and substance of its contents. Over the years, and especially during my short term as its editor, I have been impressed by the way in which the journal functions as a living library of the theology and practice of mission from a global and ecumenical perspective.

The kingdom of God as strategy for mission

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

At the beginning of the April, 1979 issue of the IRM, in his article, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,”[1] Raymond Fung's unusual association of the notion of strategy with the Kingdom of God, and his clear personal opening words, beckoned me to read on:

It is ten years since I first began my involvement in urban industrial mission in Hong Kong … My colleagues and I have tried to share the Christian faith with factory workers in the context of participation in their struggles for dignity and justice. Most of us are well-educated and have middle-class backgrounds. We also have a personal commitment to Jesus Christ.[2]

Fung's intent is to show that the kingdom of God suggests what mission looks like and how it works. He tells about a Bible study he led with factory workers on the miraculous catch of fish (Luke 5:1–11), and how the factory workers identified with Peter in his lament to Jesus, “We have worked hard all night and caught nothing.” In the course of their discussion, the workers suddenly discovered a connection between their own world of long, hard labour, without anything to show for it, and the world of Jesus. They saw that the world of Jesus was also made up of people who worked hard and suffered. But, how different were the values that operated in these two worlds.

In the world of modern industrial Hong Kong, the fact of people working their guts out and not making enough to live in decency is not an issue. Nobody gives a hoot. But in the world of Jesus, Simon Peter's cry of anguish is listened to and responded to, his needs are met, and yet he is challenged to give up what he rightfully possesses.[3]

Fung describes the reality in which people encounter the world of Jesus in relation to their own existential reality, a point of contact or overlap. In this situation people are drawn into the world of Jesus and find a welcome there. They would still need to make a choice, but they would do so as invited guests, deciding whether or not to join the community in which God's rule is recognised.

The kingdom of God, then, suggests that mission should take the form of building community, an environment in which God's rule is recognised, and where the values of justice, peace and love operate.[4] How mission works is through invitation into this Christian community that lives by a spirit of generosity and solidarity, and that with its roots embedded in people's concrete life situations, confronts the principalities and powers of the world.

Fung's experience with workers in Hong Kong echoed with my own experience with women's groups in marginal settings in San José. They too, worked long hours in menial, undervalued work. No one gave a hoot about that, nor about the discrimination they faced because of their gender and social status. Fung's thoughts were inspiring because he cared deeply about sharing God's good news with the poor, about mission in the light of God's kingdom, and having personal faith in Christ.

There is much in “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission” that foreshadows what was to become Fung's critical contribution to the 1980 Melbourne mission conference. Both this article and his Melbourne presentation grappled with the call of the church to articulate its evangelizing mission from within its participation in the struggle of the poor for justice. The force of Fung's message arises from his conviction that “identification with the people and maintaining Christian identity need not conflict, and that personal salvation and political involvement do not exclude each other.”[5] Perspectives like these, and Fung's abiding concern for the credibility of the witness of Christians, resonated with members of the ecumenical church family, and inspired us in our witness to the good news in Latin American contexts. He would help shape ecumenical thinking about evangelism in an indelible way in the years after Melbourne.

The liturgy after the liturgy

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

The IRM has played a significant role in breaking new ground for the mission faithfulness of the churches, and expanding the awareness about traditions and situations of sister churches. Such is the case of an article by Romanian Orthodox theologian, Professor Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy.”[6]

As is known, the relationship and involvement of the Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement has been one of gradual growth, but with tensions and hesitancies. That today we cannot consider mission practice without taking into account the Orthodox tradition and witness can be attributed in part to a lengthy process of consultations and publications by the WCC, in which Orthodox members have had the opportunity to present themselves. Ion Bria's article stands out as one of those that helped lay the groundwork for this ongoing process of mutual learning.

In his article, Bria fleshes out a report on a consultation on “Confessing Christ through the Liturgical Life of the Church.”[7] The consultation focused on how Orthodox ecclesiology emphasizes the eucharistic understanding of the church, but was weak on the question of the continuation of the liturgy in life. He states that while the eucharistic communion is extremely important, it might easily lead to the conclusion that the Orthodox think of the church as an exclusive, self-centred worshipping community, which would be a distortion. He points out that in the liturgy there is a double movement:

On the one hand, the assembling of the people of God performs the memorial of the death and resurrection of our Lord. … [and on the other] it manifests and realizes the process by which the cosmos is becoming ecclesia. The mission of the Church rests upon the radiating and transforming power of the liturgy. From it, the faithful are sent out into the world to confess the Gospel.[8]

Bria goes on to say that the Christian community is called to be an icon of Christ, and that the equality and freedom that members experience in the eucharist, through the action of the Spirit, should be expressed in their home life, places of work, and social networks. He speaks of the effect of this as the creation of a new (sanctified) milieu, “To enlarge the space for witness by creating a new Christian milieu. … is not a simple matter of converting the non-Christians in the vicinity of the parishes, but also a concern for finding room where the Christians live and work and where they can publicly exercise their witness and worship.”[9]

Professor Bria's concluding remarks go beyond the personal witness of individual believers who live out their faith in the context of the former socialist countries. He also applies the concept of “the liturgy after the liturgy” to the situation of the Orthodox church itself. The church needs to engage in the task of re-christianizing Christians, and to support its members who confess their hope in Christ in the face of opposition and oppression, as vital aspects of its evangelistic witness. “The church has to struggle for the fulfilment of that justice and freedom which was promised by God to all people and has constantly to give account of how the kingdom of heaven is or not within her. She has to ask herself if by the conservatism of its worship it may appear to support the violation of human rights inside or outside the Christian community.”[10]

The impact of Orthodox ecclesiology on mission thinking

After many years of Orthodox involvement in ecumenical discussions on mission, notions rooted in Orthodox ecclesiology, such as “the liturgy after the liturgy,” have come into our bloodstream. The role of the IRM in the transmission of Orthodox mission thinking and practice, such as this early article by Professor Bria, helped set us on a path towards a more trinitarian and incarnational understanding of mission, and towards emphases such as keeping together the koinonia of the eucharistic community with the community's participation in the Spirit's activity in transforming the world.

Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

I celebrate that the IRM has published articles and documents that have helped to foster a more inclusive, participatory and inter-related vision of the church, the world and ecumenical mission, by featuring contributions by women, young adults, indigenous people, persons representing minorities and others whose voices have been historically marginalized. This brings us closer to embodying the goal of God's mission as a reconciled community, a community of communities sustained by the Holy Spirit and sharing the loving presence of Christ in which all are affirmed as valuable, and where different groups can live in harmony.

In this regard, I lift up an insightful reflective article by Jane Corpuz–Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers.”[11] She unveils some of the structural dimensions of culture, suggests ways in which the gospel empowers Christians to examine and change current power relationships. Central in her analysis is the impact of the ideology of patriarchy and gender-based notions and practices on the situation of Filipina migrant workers. In a wider sense, she shows how the gospel challenges and enables people to free themselves from violence, oppression, racism and xenophobia, wherever they might be.

Corpuz-Brock points out that the Philippines have a rich and hybrid culture, in which openness to outsiders and outward travel has played a defining role. As she reviews the colonial, Spanish and USA-dominated periods of history, she uncovers how patriarchal ideological assumptions emerged from this development, and how they came to influence and define roles and possibilities for Filipinas.

Whereas young girls in pre-Spanish society enjoyed educational opportunities and freedom of movement similar to that of young boys, the strongly patriarchal system of Spain dramatically curtailed their activities. They became sheltered and overprotected, and their education confined them to church, kitchen and children. “Patriarchal society succeeded in alienating (the Filipina) from public life, public decisions and public significance.”[12] In the period of colonial dependency on the USA, women as teachers played a critical role in pacifying the archipelago. Universal public education in English became the tool to undermine nationalism, and ideas of white supremacy were elevated. “This period defined the role of women as home-maker, and dependent on the men around her.”[13]

Corpuz-Brock helps us see how market forces and the globalization of the economy gave rise to the recent exodus of people from the Philippines. She cites the worldwide economic slow-down of the late 1970s that generated the debt crisis of the Philippines and other countries of the South. To address the crisis, the Philippine government approved a loan from the World Bank and implemented the harsh policies of an accompanying structural adjustment agreement. The programme called for eliminating public services, led to higher prices of food and caused factories to shut down. This put an enormous burden on women: “… . thousands fled overseas, even though they knew that doing so involved many risks … . [they] found it too difficult to linger on and remain inactive.”[14]

Corpuz-Brock indicates that the work that Filipina migrant women do is derived directly from their identity and role as women. Her case study on the working conditions of Filipina domestic workers in Hong Kong describes the working conditions of this significant migrant group, who work for very long hours, caring for children and elderly as part of their work load. They often experience contract violations, and abuse by their employers, such as excessive scolding, discriminatory remarks, stinginess with food, lack of privacy and other demeaning behaviours.[15]

She asks why Hong Kong authorities do not address the injustices and harsh treatment faced by Filipina domestic workers. Why does the Philippine government not complain? How is it that Chinese women employers can be aggressive and even act violently towards their domestic helpers? Why do jobs overseas increasingly go to women? She shows that what prevails at the base of each of these issues are male-dominated views, patriarchal social relationships, skewed conceptions of the value of work done by women, and unbalanced strategies of development.[16]

How the gospel challenges and empowers Christians to change the unjust power relationships at play is the focus of the rest of Corpuz-Brock's article. Taking inspiration from the account of our Lord's flight to Egypt as an infant, and highlighting some of the movements of God's people in biblical times, she reminds us of the powerful image of the church as a pilgrim people:

The people of God [are] in constant movement, in search of God's abundant blessings. … At the heart of the gospel is a longing for a “home”, a place and a space where justice is done and love binds together a community. The gospel, by proclaiming a pilgrim people, proclaims a unity and solidarity between the migrant and the community to which the migrant goes.[17]

There is a prophetic call to denounce injustices in the Philippines that drive Filipinas to perform degrading work outside their country. This same call leads us to denounce situations of injustice in which the Filipina migrant worker is placed when she arrives and works overseas. Finally, the call leads us to recognize the seeds of the same injustice in the lives of millions of women, migrant workers or not.[18]

She draws on the story of the Good Samaritan, the encounter between Jesus and a Syrophoenician woman, and the story of Jesus and the Samaritan woman to underscore the positive potential of cross-cultural encounter to overcome antagonistic relations between peoples of different ethnic origins. She also raises up the vision of Mary's song, the Magnificat, as a call to churches and Christians to make “a clear alignment with those who are victims of systems of power and wealth,”[19] and concludes with examples and suggestions for church actions for and with migrant workers.

The gospel's critique of unjust relationships

Corpuz-Brock's article continues to be tremendously relevant for mission thinking in our time, in which the phenomenon of migrants, refugees and displaced persons has reached tragic dimensions. In my current ministry I have daily contact with Nicaraguan migrants whose situation in Costa Rica can be described very similarly. She helps us understand the structural dimensions of culture that call for critique in light of the gospel. This continues to be pertinent, since unjust relationships are shaped and legitimized in all cultures.

Above all, the value of her article lies in how she applies a feminist reading to the reality of women migrants. Not content to address only “women's rights,” she provokes a new way of seeing the human being as both female and male. In this regard, she represents many whose experience and theological perspectives, once absent from the study of mission, are helping to shape a vision of mission that is much more participatory, democratic, and inclusive.

“The Earth Is the Lord's”

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

I am also grateful for how the IRM has played an important role of marking the transitions in how mission is conceived and practised. Over the years, its publication of timely documents and articles arising from studies and dialogues on mission have made it a privileged instrument for marking such passages. Currently, for example, it deals with central themes such as salvation, theological approaches to cultures, reconciliation and healing, and the development of a theology of religious pluralism.

Here I cite the publication of a section report from the San Antonio conference on world mission,[20] where one of the principal themes was the mission of the churches in relation to the creation. This was the first mission conference of the WCC to grapple with the theme of the creation and of humankind's place and role within it, which was a very important shift. This section begins with a strong faith conviction:

We affirm that the whole creation belongs to the Triune God – every inhabited part of the earth (territory), and every piece of earth (land) is, and remains, God's. God has given the earth to the whole human family “to till and keep it.”[21] … [God] can liberate us from the captivity of accumulation of private property to the freedom of sharing, and challenge the presumption that humankind has the right to destroy the earth in the name of progress or national security. We are called to participate in God's reconciling work “for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him” (Eph. 1:9b-10a.).[22]

This conference was held while the world was still dominated by two competing ideologies and economic systems. Much of the work was shaped by reports of team visits to a variety of regions and churches, where there was sharing of testimonies and reflections on “the state of the earth.” The emphasis on the Creator's ownership of the whole of creation was therefore important for denouncing of how God's role had been usurped by ideological systems and powers in all regions. Likewise, the emphasis on humankind “tending and keeping” the creation, led to the admission of how we have failed to safeguard its integrity.

The methodology of gathering first-hand reports on “the state of the earth” and their subsequent discussion by participants had the value of holding up a mirror and speaking the truth about the ecological crisis. This methodology is useful in various truth and reconciliation processes because of the persuasive power of moral authenticity. In the current global crisis, it continues to offer much potential for the common witness of our churches and partner agencies in the ecumenical movement at different levels, as they speak the truth to policy-makers. San Antonio's report set us on a path to thinking in terms of planetary citizenship and the need for globalized responses to ecological crises.

Moving towards an eco-ecumenical theology

In light of subsequent scientific, theological and ethical discussions on creation, we might critique some of the limits of this report. There is little development of an incarnational view that would see the Triune God as suffering with, moving with and empowering the universe. Some very pertinent New Testament passages are missing. There still is a somewhat hierarchical and static view of God “above” and the earth as a finished creation. “Stewardship of the earth,” although important, tends to support a human-centred view of creation.

Where this report continues to speak with force is in challenging churches and Christians to continue unmasking the forces of greed, misuse of power and deceptions about the suffering of the planet, as an essential aspect of our faith. The need for churches and for people of all faiths to address prophetically the idols of globalization and their market-driven and exclusionary interests, is all the more urgent today, as climate change threatens the very survival of life on the planet as we know it.

The report traces the origin of threats to creation to “… a turning away from the living God, the free reign of human greed, the misuse of power, the presence of fear, ignorance, and deception, that hides the truth of creation's suffering.” It added, “We discover our need for repentance. … [W]e all, individuals and churches, share in the abuse of God's creation.”[23]

While this is still valid, it needs to be recognized that the global crisis has deepened since then, and is challenging us to raise new questions and move toward “other ways of seeing.” For example, Mary Motte, in a perceptive article in the November 2010 issue of IRM, states that,

the challenge is whether Christian discipleship can effectively embrace an ecological conversion, affecting attitudes and practices with regard to the Earth and the universe. Awareness of our complicity in the destruction process, of our carbon footprint, calls for a new way of seeing, new behaviours of reconciliation and solidarity. Discipleship marked by reconciliation and solidarity, must be rooted in ecological conversion, in our deep awareness of our relationship to the universe, to the Earth and to all creation.[24]

The continuing significance of “The Earth Is the Lord's” article is that it marked a shift in mission studies by expanding the scope of mission to include the whole of creation. It challenged the powers that usurp God's place, and called churches and Christians to a mission of caring for the earth, in the way of Christ. As the following shows, it took a clear, very promising step toward what today is called an eco-ecumenical theology:

Mission in Christ's way must extend to God's creation. Because the earth is the Lord's, the responsibility of the churches towards the earth is a crucial part of the church's mission. This mission brings the gospel of hope to all creation – a hope rooted in the resurrection of Christ. We are reminded that the early and undivided church stressed the deep unity between humankind and the whole of creation. In our church today we should share in prayer for the anxieties of this time. Our celebration of the Lord's Table should affirm God's redeeming love for all creation, and the breaking of the bread together should empower us to share the gifts of the earth with one another. This requires a change of life style as part of mission in Christ's way.”[25]

Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography

I have been appreciating how the IRM features themes and articles that present contextually rooted approaches to mission concerns, as a way of engaging us across similarities and differences and enabling us to discover fresh insights into how the churches express their mission locally and globally. No matter what the theme, such approaches help to inform, energize, and/or critique the mission thinking and practice in our own church community. Of course, the more personally or institutionally we are involved or affected by a theme, the more it will resonate with us.

Armin Zimmermann's article, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS,”[26] gives us new considerations and new elements for Christian sexual ethics in the context of the human suffering and destruction caused by HIV and AIDS. He insists that it is no longer adequate simply to repeat traditional Christian sexual ethics, both because it is out-of-step with the changed environment of the world of the 21st century, and also because HIV/AIDS confronts us with new challenges to which we have to find new responses. In his preparing to teach in Africa (Cameroon), he rightly observed, “The situation has changed so that our sexual behaviour is not only a matter of leading more or less good Christian lives but also becomes a question of life and death.”[27]

In my current ministry in the Costa Rican Lutheran Church, I am engaged in providing pastoral accompaniment to persons with HIV/AIDS. I have also been involved in a ministry of education within the church on the reality of HIV/AIDS, where we have used materials that articulate some basic theological perspectives and principles for addressing HIV/AIDS, tried to raise awareness about the factors and situations that increase the spread of HIV, and have addressed some of the fears and ignorance surrounding AIDS. My teammates and I promote HIV prevention and network with organizations and persons with HIV and AIDS.

During the past three years, with the full endorsement of the national church, the team carried out a series of educational workshops on HIV/AIDS in the local faith communities in both urban and rural settings, where the majority of the members are poor and affected by problems because of how they are socially disadvantaged. Most of the participants in the workshops were women and youth, and in terms of AIDS awareness, some real progress was made. Nevertheless, what the workshops underscored was the great need for church members to learn about and discuss human sexuality generally from a faith perspective. Since then, our team participates in internal discussion leading to the formulation of a curriculum for sexual education by the church. It is in the context of the realities of peoples' sexual lives in the era of AIDS that we must provide sexual education informed by Christian ethics, as a necessary part of our mission. In this sense the text of Zimmermann featured by the IRM comes as a wonderful gift to enhance and energize our thinking.

Zimmermann sketches out a sexual ethics in terms of a series of guidelines or basic principles, which he develops by using an ethical approach shaped by general biblical values. Zimmermann steers away from establishing “the biblical basis” for his guidelines and opts instead for interpretations shaped by biblical-based values like life, love, freedom, equality, commitment, respect, care, etc. Thus, he says, “I am convinced that everything that enhances life, that promotes life and that enriches life is according to the will of God. Sexuality certainly belongs to this category. As a minimum rule for our sexual behaviour, I suggest that any sexual activity of any person should never hurt or endanger any person, in any possible way.”[28]

While some of his guidelines have a familiar ring, they are interpreted and rooted in the contemporary African context and the lived realities of men and women there in the era of HIV/AIDS. On the theme of intimacy, for example, he brings to bear practices and norms such as the inequality between men and women in their sexual as in other relationships, the inheritance of widows, the institution of polygamy, and the reluctance of many church leaders to openly discuss condom use. Never absent from his considerations is a view of the risks involved to human life in the context of the AIDS epidemic.

Under his first guideline, that sexuality is part of God's good creation, Zimmermann argues that the imago Dei, as presented by Genesis 1, is reflected in humanity being created as relational beings, but he also stresses the erotic, pleasurable, and satisfying aspects of sexuality as expressed by Song of Songs. This becomes a basis for critiquing culturally sanctioned male patterns of sexuality that are not satisfying and even oppressive of women.

Zimmermann's second guideline is the full and equal dignity of women, or gender equality. He correctly observes that women often have no right over their own bodies. “It is men who determine where and when sexual intercourse takes place, and women have often no right or means to refuse it.”[29] He goes on to say, “In the worst case, sexual relationships or encounters between men and women are characterized by coercion, and force, no matter if the people involved are married or not. There cannot be the slightest doubt that any sexual act which involves coercion and force is to be strongly rejected by any Christian sexual ethics.”[30] In this section Zimmermann notes the direct connection between practices that oppress women and the spread of HIV/AIDS. Here he goes beyond a traditional, more narrowly focused Christian sexual ethics to declare, “What therefore is needed … in this context of male oppression and exploitation of females are information and education, and the empowerment of women in the economic, social and political spheres.”[31] Not surprisingly, this is very pertinent not only for our situation in Costa Rica, but for Christian sexual ethics globally.

In considering whether sexual intercourse should only occur within marriage, the author clearly supports and commends the official position of most churches. But he also argues that if one of the essential aspects of sex is its relational aspect, and should not just be casual, then we may at least conclude that sexual activities should take place in the context of permanent relationships. On the other hand, that would mean that such relationships do not necessarily have to exist exclusively within the context of marriage.[32]

He acknowledges that “many people, including Christians, do not live up to the high expectations raised in this presentation.”[33] This is why safer sex must be addressed, and specifically, the use of condoms. He is forthright in saying that our first message to people who engage in high-risk sexual behaviour and do not follow the principles of abstinence or fidelity, should be “that with immediate effect they should start to consistently and correctly use condoms. This is necessary because it is clear that these people are in acute danger of either contracting or spreading HIV, and are thus risking their own lives and those of others.”[34] Thus, he emphasizes that if it is one of the highest duties of the church to preserve life, then promoting condom use is an ethical or moral obligation of the highest order. He adds that those Christians and church leaders who hide the facts about the effectiveness of condom use in the prevention of AIDS, or who preach against it, “become guilty of transgressing one of God's greatest commandments, that is, to save life.”[35]

“Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS” has given us some new ethical lenses and new means by which to respond faithfully in mission in the context of the spread of HIVAIDS.

A concluding word of gratitude: I have come full circle in my personal tribute to the International Review of Mission on the occasion of its centenary. I have raised up the above articles not necessarily because they were the best written or most academic, but because they are examples of those that have been significant to me, and perhaps to the wider readership of the IRM. In reading through many articles, I have seen how, through them, the Spirit of God uplifted God's people in different eras and different places to seek to call people into communion with God, with one another and with creation. As members of the ecumenical family, we have much to be thankful for as we celebrate the journal's significance for the study of mission.

Footnotes

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography
  • 1
    Raymond Fung, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 68:270 (April 1979). pp. 102108.
    Direct Link:
  • 2
    Raymond Fung, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 68:270 (April 1979) p. 102.
    Direct Link:
  • 3
    Raymond Fung, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 68:270 (April 1979) pp. 103104.
    Direct Link:
  • 4
    Raymond Fung, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 68:270 (April 1979) p. 104.
    Direct Link:
  • 5
    Raymond Fung, “The Kingdom of God as Strategy for Mission,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 68:270 (April 1979) p. 102.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” in International Review of Mission, vol.67:265 (Jan. 1978), pp. 8690.
  • 7
    Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” in International Review of Mission, vol.67:265 (Jan. 1978) p. 86.
  • 8
    Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” in International Review of Mission, vol.67:265 (Jan. 1978) p. 87.
  • 9
    Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” in International Review of Mission, vol.67:265 (Jan. 1978) p. 89.
  • 10
    Ion Bria, “The Liturgy after the Liturgy,” in International Review of Mission, vol.67:265 (Jan. 1978) p. 89
  • 11
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996). pp. 6383.
  • 12
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) p. 66.
  • 13
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) p. 67.
  • 14
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) p. 69.
  • 15
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) pp. 69, 70.
  • 16
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) pp. 77, 78.
  • 17
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) p. 78.
  • 18
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) 80.
  • 19
    Jane Corpuz-Brock, “Gospel, Cultures, and Filipina Migrant Workers,” in International Review of Mission, vol. 85:336 (Jan. 1996) 80
  • 20
    Section III: The Earth is the Lord's,” in International Review of Mission, vol.78:311–312 (July–Oct. 1989), pp. 371387.
  • 21
    Section III: The Earth is the Lord's,” in International Review of Mission, vol.78:311–312 (July–Oct. 1989) p. 371.
  • 22
    Section III: The Earth is the Lord's,” in International Review of Mission, vol.78:311–312 (July–Oct. 1989) p. 371
  • 23
    Section III: The Earth is the Lord's,” in International Review of Mission, vol.78:311–312 (July–Oct. 1989) p. 373.
  • 24
    Mary Motte, “Creation, Theological Imagination, and Questions about Discipleship,” in International Review of Mission, vol.99:2 (Nov. 2010), pp. 242243.
  • 25
    The Earth is the Lord's,” p. 373.
  • 26
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004), pp. 255269.
  • 27
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 256.
  • 28
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 268.
  • 29
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 257.
  • 30
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 258.
  • 31
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 258
  • 32
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 265.
  • 33
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 265
  • 34
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 266.
  • 35
    Armin Zimmermann, “Towards a New Christian Sexual Ethics in the Light of HIV/AIDS”, in International Review of Mission, vol.93:369 (Apr. 2004) p. 266

Biography

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. The kingdom of God as strategy for mission
  4. The liturgy after the liturgy
  5. Gospel, cultures and Filipina migrant workers
  6. “The Earth Is the Lord's”
  7. Towards a new Christian sexual ethics in the light of HIV/AIDS
  8. Footnotes
  9. Biography
  • Ana Langerak is a pastor of the Costa Rican Lutheran Church. She served as executive director of the WCC's unit on health, education and witness, and as the editor of the International Review of Mission from 1997–2000.