I am especially grateful to Macartan Humphreys (Columbia University) for comments on the draft and suggestions with regard to the literature on participation in political science, and to Perri 6 (Nottingham Trent University) for insights based on his recent work on political ritual. I would also like to acknowledge the helpful advice of an anonymous reviewer. Design of the original project was undertaken jointly with Steven Archibald, drawing on findings from a project on Human Rights and Forced Migration directed by Dr Josh de Wind (Social Science Research Council) with funding from the Mellon Foundation. This support is gratefully acknowledged. I alone am responsible for opinions expressed here.