Constructive comments on drafts of this article have provoked major revisions. For these I am grateful to Petra Bongartz, Danny Burns, Naomi Hossein, Rosie McGee, Jethro Pettit, Patta Scott-Villiers, Stephen Wood and others. Special thanks go to Alfredo Ortiz Aragón for both his comments and the sources to which he referred me. The usual disclaimers apply.
Version of Record online: 1 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Author. IDS Bulletin © 2012 Institute of Development Studies
Special Issue: Action Research for Development and Social Change
Volume 43, Issue 3, pages 71–87, May 2012
How to Cite
Chambers, R. (2012), Sharing and Co-generating Knowledges: Reflections on Experiences with PRA and CLTS. IDS Bulletin, 43: 71–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2012.00324.x
PRA stands for Participatory Rural Appraisal (Chambers 1994, 1997 and Cornwall and Pratt 2003), sometimes renamed Participatory Reflection and Action. See also http://www.pnet.ids.ac.uk/prc. Participatory Action and Reflection would have been better but Participatory Action Research was already PAR.
CLTS stands for Community-Led Total Sanitation (Kar 2003; Kar and Pasteur 2005; Kar with Chambers 2008; Bongartz and Chambers 2009; Kar 2010) with rural applications. Now when applied in urban areas it takes a new form and has become Citizen-Led Total Sanitation. See http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org.
- Issue online: 1 MAY 2012
- Version of Record online: 1 MAY 2012
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