• 1
    Locatelli F, Aljama P, Barany P, et al. Revised European Best Practice Guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19(Suppl. 2): ii147.
  • 2
    KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clinical Practice Recommendations for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: S11145.
  • 3
    Collins AJ, Li S, St Peter W, et al. Death, hospitalization, and economic associations among incident hemodialysis patients with hematocrit values of 36 to 39%. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 246573.
  • 4
    Locatelli F, Pisoni RL, Combe C, et al. Anaemia in haemodialysis patients of five European countries: association with morbidity and mortality in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 12132.
  • 5
    Volkova N, Arab L. Evidence-based systematic literature review of hemoglobin/hematocrit and all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: 2436.
  • 6
    Besarab A, Bolton WK, Browne JK, et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 58490.
  • 7
    Parfrey PS, Foley RN, Wittreich BH, et al. Double-blind comparison of full and partial anemia correction in incident hemodialysis patients without symptomatic heart disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 21809.
  • 8
    Drueke TB, Locatelli F, Clyne N, et al. Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 207184.
  • 9
    Singh AK, Szczech L, Tang KL, et al. Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 208598.
  • 10
    Strippoli GF, Craig JC, Manno C, Schena FP. Hemoglobin targets for the anemia of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 315465.
  • 11
    Phrommintikul A, Haas SJ, Elsik M, Krum H. Mortality and target haemoglobin concentrations in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease treated with erythropoietin: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 369: 3818.
  • 12
    KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline and Clinical Practice Recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 50: 471530.
  • 13
    Halstenson CE, Macres M, Katz SA, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of epoetin alfa and epoetin beta. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991; 50: 70212.
  • 14
    Smith WB, Dowell JA, Pratt RD. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of epoetin delta in two studies in healthy volunteers and two studies in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin Ther 2007; 29: 136880.
  • 15
    Macdougall IC, Gray SJ, Elston O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein compared with epoetin alfa in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 23925.
  • 16
    Macdougall IC, Robson R, Opatrna S, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and subcutaneous continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 121115.
  • 17
    Storring PL, Tiplady RJ, Gaines Das RE, et al. Epoetin alfa and beta differ in their erythropoietin isoform compositions and biological properties. Br J Haematol 1998; 100: 7989.
  • 18
    Powell JS, Berkner KL, Lebo RV, Adamson JW. Human erythropoietin gene: high level expression in stably transfected mammalian cells and chromosome localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 64659.
  • 19
    Nimtz M, Martin W, Wray V, et al. Structures of sialylated oligosaccharides of human erythropoietin expressed in recombinant BHK-21 cells. Eur J Biochem 1993; 213: 3956.
  • 20
    Deicher R, Horl WH. Differentiating factors between erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a guide to selection for anaemia of chronic kidney disease. Drugs 2004; 64: 499509.
  • 21
    Kwan JT, Pratt RD. Epoetin delta, erythropoietin produced in a human cell line, in the management of anaemia in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients. Curr Med Res Opin 2007; 23: 30711.
  • 22
    Egrie JC, Browne JK. Development and characterization of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16(Suppl. 3): 313.
  • 23
    Macdougall IC. CERA (Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator): a new erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for the treatment of anemia. Curr Hematol Rep 2005; 4: 43640.
  • 24
    Stead RB, Lambert J, Wessels D, et al. Evaluation of the safety and pharmacodynamics of Hematide, a novel erythropoietic agent, in a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in healthy volunteers. Blood 2006; 108: 18304.
  • 25
    Regidor DL, Kopple JD, Kovesdy CP, et al. Associations between changes in hemoglobin and administered erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and survival in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 118191.
  • 26
    Kaufman JS, Reda DJ, Fye CL, et al. Subcutaneous compared with intravenous epoetin in patients receiving hemodialysis. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Erythropoietin in Hemodialysis Patients. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 57883.
  • 27
    Weiss LG, Clyne N, Divino Fihlho J, et al. The efficacy of once weekly compared with two or three times weekly subcutaneous epoetin beta: results from a randomized controlled multicentre trial. Swedish Study Group. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15: 201419.
  • 28
    Locatelli F, Baldamus CA, Villa G, et al. Once-weekly compared with three-times-weekly subcutaneous epoetin beta: results from a randomized, multicenter, therapeutic-equivalence study. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 11925.
  • 29
    Spinowitz BS, Pratt RD. Epoetin delta is effective for the management of anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease. Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22: 250713.
  • 30
    Locatelli F, Olivares J, Walker R, et al. Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein for treatment of anemia in chronic renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 2001; 60: 7417.
  • 31
    Locatelli F, Canaud B, Giacardy F, et al. Treatment of anaemia in dialysis patients with unit dosing of darbepoetin alfa at a reduced dose frequency relative to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 3629.
  • 32
    Vanrenterghem Y, Barany P, Mann JF, et al. Randomized trial of darbepoetin alfa for treatment of renal anemia at a reduced dose frequency compared with rHuEPO in dialysis patients. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 216775.
  • 33
    Mann J, Kessler M, Villa G, et al. Darbepoetin alfa once every 2 weeks for treatment of anemia in dialysis patients: a combined analysis of eight multicenter trials. Clin Nephrol 2007; 67: 1408.
  • 34
    Aarup M, Bryndum J, Dieperink H, Joffe P. Clinical implications of converting stable haemodialysis patients from subcutaneous to intravenous administration of darbepoetin alfa. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 131216.
  • 35
    De Francisco AL, Sulowicz W, Klinger M, et al. Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator (C.E.R.A.) administered at extended administration intervals corrects anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis: a randomised, multicentre, multiple-dose, phase II study. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60: 168796.
  • 36
    Provenzano R, Besarab A, Macdougall IC, et al. The continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) corrects anemia at extended administration intervals in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: results of a phase II study. Clin Nephrol 2007; 67: 30617.
  • 37
    Levin NW, Fishbane S, Cañedo FV, et al., MAXIMA study investigators. Intravenous methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta for haemoglobin control in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis: a randomised non-inferiority trial (MAXIMA). Lancet 2007; 370: 141521.
  • 38
    Macdougall IC, Walker R, Provenzano R, et al., ARCTOS Study Investigators. C.E.R.A. corrects anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: results of a randomized clinical trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 33747.
  • 39
    Ifudu O, Feldman J, Friedman EA. The intensity of hemodialysis and the response to erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 4205.
  • 40
    Coladonato JA, Frankenfield DL, Reddan DN, et al. Trends in anemia management among US hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 128895.
  • 41
    Locatelli F, Andrulli S, Pecchini F, et al. Effect of high-flux dialysis on the anaemia of haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15: 1399409.
  • 42
    Bonforte G, Grillo P, Zerbi S, Surian M. Improvement of anemia in hemodialysis patients treated by hemodiafiltration with high-volume on-line-prepared substitution fluid. Blood Purif 2002; 20: 35763.
  • 43
    Locatelli F, Andrulli S, Memoli B, et al. Nutritional-inflammation status and resistance to erythropoietin therapy in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 9918.
  • 44
    Rossert J, Gassmann-Mayer C, Frei D, McClellan W. Prevalence and predictors of epoetin hyporesponsiveness in chronic kidney disease patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 794800.
  • 45
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, McAllister CJ, Lehn RS, et al. Effect of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome on EPO hyporesponsiveness in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 76173.
  • 46
    Gershon SK, Luksenburg H, Cote TR, Braun MM. Pure red-cell aplasia and recombinant erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 15846.
  • 47
    Zhu X, Perazella MA. Nonhematologic complications of erythropoietin therapy. Semin Dial 2006; 19: 27984.
  • 48
    Edmunds ME, Walls J, Tucker B, et al. Seizures in haemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1989; 4: 10659.
  • 49
    Eschbach JW, Abdulhadi MH, Browne JK, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in anemic patients with end-stage renal disease. Results of a phase III multicenter clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 9921000.
  • 50
    Watanabe D, Suzuma K, Matsui S, et al. Erythropoietin as a retinal angiogenic factor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 78292.
  • 51
    Tessitore N, Solero GP, Lippi G, et al. The role of iron status markers in predicting response to intravenous iron in haemodialysis patients on maintenance erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 141623.
  • 52
    Fishbane S, Galgano C, Langley RC, Jr, et al. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content in the evaluation of iron status of hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1997; 52: 21722.
  • 53
    Horl WH. Clinical aspects of iron use in the anemia of kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 38293.
  • 54
    Garzia M, Di Mario A, Ferraro E, et al. Reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent: an indicator of reduced iron availability in chronic kidney diseases during erythropoietin therapy. Lab Hematol 2007; 13: 611.
  • 55
    Chuang CL, Liu RS, Wei YH, et al. Early prediction of response to intravenous iron supplementation by reticulocyte haemoglobin content and high-fluorescence reticulocyte count in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 3707.
  • 56
    Brugnara C. Iron deficiency and erythropoiesis: new diagnostic approaches. Clin Chem 2003; 49: 15738.
  • 57
    Bovy C, Gothot A, Delanaye P, et al. Mature erythrocyte parameters as new markers of functional iron deficiency in haemodialysis: sensitivity and specificity. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 115662.
  • 58
    Besarab A, Amin N, Ahsan M, et al. Optimization of epoetin therapy with intravenous iron therapy in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 5308.
  • 59
    DeVita MV, Frumkin D, Mittal S, et al. Targeting higher ferritin concentrations with intravenous iron dextran lowers erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2003; 60: 33540.
  • 60
    Fishbane S, Shapiro W, Dutka P, et al. A randomized trial of iron deficiency testing strategies in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2001; 60: 240611.
  • 61
    Kaneko Y, Miyazaki S, Hirasawa Y, et al. Transferrin saturation versus reticulocyte hemoglobin content for iron deficiency in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2003; 63: 108693.
  • 62
    Danielson BG. Structure, chemistry, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous iron agents. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15(Suppl. 2): S938.
  • 63
    Charytan C, Levin N, Al-Saloum M, et al. Efficacy and safety of iron sucrose for iron deficiency in patients with dialysis-associated anemia: North American clinical trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 3007.
  • 64
    Michael B, Coyne DW, Fishbane S, et al. Sodium ferric gluconate complex in hemodialysis patients: adverse reactions compared to placebo and iron dextran. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 18309.
  • 65
    Walters BA, Van Wyck DB. Benchmarking iron dextran sensitivity: reactions requiring resuscitative medication in incident and prevalent patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 143842.
  • 66
    Chertow GM, Mason PD, Vaage-Nilsen O, Ahlmén J. Update on adverse drug events associated with parenteral iron. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 37882.
  • 67
    Auerbach M, Rodgers GM. Intravenous iron. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 934.
  • 68
    Spinowitz BS, Kausz AT, Baptista J, et al. Ferumoxytol for treating iron deficiency anemia in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19: 1599605.
  • 69
    Schiesser D, Binet I, Tsinalis D, et al. Weekly low-dose treatment with intravenous iron sucrose maintains iron status and decreases epoetin requirement in iron-replete haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 28415.
  • 70
    Brewster UC, Perazella MA. Intravenous iron and the risk of infection in end-stage renal disease patients. Semin Dial 2004; 17: 5760.
  • 71
    Pai AB, Boyd AV, McQuade CR, et al. Comparison of oxidative stress markers after intravenous administration of iron dextran, sodium ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27: 34350.