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Keywords:

  • Trauma;
  • epidemiology;
  • aetiology;
  • risk factors;
  • prevention

Abstract

This article reviews recent reports describing the aetiology of dental trauma from national and international studies as well as the different classifications currently used to report dental injuries. It also discusses possible preventive measures to reduce the increasing frequency of dental trauma. Reported studies demonstrate that males tend to experience more dental trauma in the permanent dentition than females, however, there does not appear to be a difference between the sexes in the primary dentition. Accidents within and around the home were the major sources of injury to the primary dentition, while accidents at home and school accounted for most of the injuries to the permanent dentition. The most frequent type of injury was a simple crown fracture of the maxillary central incisors in the permanent dentition while injuries to the periodontal tissues were more common in the primary dentition.

When preventive measures are being planned, knowledge of aetiology is important. More prospective studies from representative populations are required to understand the complexities of dental trauma epidemiology and to allow implementation of preventive strategies to reduce the increasing frequency of dental trauma.