• Cardiovascular disease;
  • diabetes;
  • periodontitis;
  • preterm birth;
  • systemic health


The relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases has been increasingly recognized over the past two decades. Indeed, the clichés “You cannot have good general health without good oral health”, “The mouth is part of the body” and “Floss or die”, are gaining an increasing momentum. A large number of epidemiological studies have now linked poor oral health with cardiovascular diseases, poor glycaemic control in diabetics, low birthweight preterm babies and a variety of other conditions. The majority have shown an association, although not always strong. As a result, a number of meta-analyses have been conducted and have confirmed the associations and at the same time cautioned that further studies are required, particularly with regard to the effect of periodontal treatment in reducing risk. A number of biologically plausible mechanisms have been put forward to explain the association and there is accumulating evidence in support of them, although at this stage, insufficient to establish causality. Nevertheless, the relationship between poor oral health and systemic diseases has become a significant issue, such that adult oral health can no longer be ignored in overall health strategies. This review provides an update on current understanding of the contribution of poor oral health to systemic diseases, the possible mechanisms involved and the relevance of this for general dental practitioners.