Background: Periodontal diseases and diabetes are two common diseases with high prevalence. Many clinicians have accepted the relationship between these two diseases. Some investigators have reported that periodontal treatment may enhance the metabolic control of diabetes. The effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) were examined.
Methods: Forty patients with DM2 and chronic periodontitis [mean age = 50.29 years; mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) = 8.72] were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group (n = 22) received full-mouth scaling and root planing, whereas the control group (n = 18) received no periodontal treatment. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were recorded at baseline and compared to data collected three months later.
Results: The groups did not differ in gender ratio, age or clinical parameters [PPD (p = 0.107), CAL (p = 0.888), PI (p = 0.180)] and biochemical markers at baseline [FPG (p = 0.429), HbA1c (p = 0.304), TG (p = 0.486), TC (p = 0.942), LDL (p = 0.856) and HDL (p = 0.881)]. FPG, HbA1c and clinical parameters differed between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.006, 0.003 and 0, respectively). From baseline to follow-up (after three months), HbA1c levels decreased in the treated group (p = 0.003). In the same time period, FPG, GI, PPD and CAL increased in the control group (p = 0.016, 0.0, 0.0 and 0.004, respectively) but HbA1c did not change significantly.
Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal therapy could improve metabolic control in diabetic patients.