• 1
    Ziesdes des Plantes BG. Selected works of BG Ziesdes des Plantes. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1973:137140.
  • 2
    Webber RL, Horton RA. Tuned-Aperture Computed Tomography: Theory and Application in Dental Radiology. In: Advances in Maxillofacial Imaging. Farman AG, Ruprecht A, Gibbs SJ, Scarfe WC, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, 1997:359366.
  • 3
    Hounsfield GN. Nobel Lecture. 8 December 1979. Computed medical imaging. J Radiol 1980;61:459468.
  • 4
    Cormack AM. Early two-dimensional reconstruction (CT scanning) and recent topics stemming from it. Nobel lecture. 8 December 1979. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1980;4:658664.
  • 5
    Goldman LW. Principles of CT and CT Technology. J Nucl Med Technol 2007;35:115128.
  • 6
    Robb RA, Lent AH, Gilbert BK, Chu A. The dynamic spatial reconstructor: a computed tomography system for high-speed simultaneous scanning of multiple cross sections of the heart. J Med Syst 1980;4:253288.
  • 7
    Robb RA. The dynamic spatial reconstructor: an x-ray video-fluoroscopic CT scanner for dynamic volume imaging of moving organs. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1982;1:2233.
  • 8
    Sukovic P. Cone beam computed tomography in craniofacial imaging. Orthod Craniofac Res 2003;6(Suppl 1):3136.
  • 9
    Hayakawa Y, Sano T, Sukovic P, Scarfe WC, Farman AG. Cone beam computed tomography – a paradigm shift for clinical dentistry. Nippon Dental Review 2005;65:125132.
  • 10
    Farman AG, Levato CM, Scarfe WC. A primer on cone beam computed tomography. Inside Dentistry 2007;3:9093.
  • 11
    Scarfe WC, Farman AG. Cone beam computed tomography: a paradigm shift for clinical dentistry. Australasian Dental Practice 2007;Jul-Aug:102110.
  • 12
    Feldkamp LA, Davis LC, Kress JW. Practical cone-beam algorithm. J Opt Soc Am A 1984;1:612619.
  • 13
    Wischmann H-A, Luijendijk HA, Meulenbrugge HJ, Overdick M, Schmidt R, Kiani K. Correction of amplifier nonlinearity, offset, gain, temporal artefacts, and defects for flat-panel digital imaging devices. In: Medical Imaging 2002. Physics of Medical Imaging. Antonuk LE, Yaffe MJ, eds. Proceedings of SPIE Volume 4682. San Diego, CA: SPIE, 2002:427437.
  • 14
    Grangeat P. Mathematical framework of cone beam 3D reconstruction via the first derivate of the Radon transform. Mathematical Methods in Tomography. In: Herman GT, Louis AK, Natterer F, eds. Berlin: Springer, 1991:6697.
  • 15
    Scarfe WC, Farman AG, Sukovic P. Clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography in dental practice. J Can Dent Assoc 2006;72:7580.
  • 16
    Farman AG. Image guidance: the present future of dental care. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent 2006;18:342344.
  • 17
    Koyama S, Aoyama T, Oda N, Yamauchi-Kawaura C. Radiation dose evaluation in tomosynthesis and C-arm cone-beam CT examinations with an anthropomorphic phantom. Med Phys 2010;37:42984306.
  • 18
    Carter L, Farman AG, Geist J, et al. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology executive opinion statement on performing and interpreting diagnostic cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;106:561562.
  • 19
    Kau CH, Bozic M, English J, Lee R, Bussa H, Ellis RK. Cone-beam computed tomography of the maxillofacial region – an update. Int J Med Robot 2009;5:366380.
  • 20
    International Commission on Radiation Protection. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection, ICRP Publication 26. Ann ICRP 1977;1:3.
  • 21
    Qu XM, Li G, Ludlow JB, Zhang ZY, Ma XC. Effective radiation dose of ProMax 3D cone-beam computerized tomography scanner with different dental protocols. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:770776.
  • 22
    Lofthag-Hansen S, Thilander-Klang A, Gröndahl K. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view. Eur J Radiol 2011;80:483488.
  • 23
    Sur J, Seki K, Koizumi H, Nakajima K, Okano T. Effects of tube current on cone-beam computerized tomography image quality for presurgical implant planning in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:e2933.
  • 24
    Kwong JC, Palomo JM, Landers MA, Figueroa A, Hans MG. Image quality produced by different cone-beam computed tomography settings. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;133:317327.
  • 25
    Chen L, Shaw CC, Altunbas MC, Lai CJ, Liu X. Spatial resolution properties in cone beam CT: a simulation study. Med Phys 2008;35:724734.
  • 26
    Bryant JA, Drage NA, Richmond S. Study of the scan uniformity from an i-CAT cone beam computed tomography dental imaging system. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2008;37:365374.
  • 27
    Nackaerts O, Maes F, Yan H, Couto Souza P, Pauwels R, Jacobs R. Analysis of intensity variability in multislice and cone beam computed tomography. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:873879.
  • 28
    Lagravère MO, Fang Y, Carey J, Toogood RW, Packota GV, Major PW. Density conversion factor determined using a cone-beam computed tomography unit NewTom QR-DVT 9000. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006;35:407409.
  • 29
    Lagravère MO, Carey J, Ben-Zvi M, Packota GV, Major PW. Effect of object location on the density measurement and Hounsfield conversion in a NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography unit. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2008;37:305308.
  • 30
    Mah P, Reeves TE, McDavid WD. Deriving Hounsfield units using grey levels in cone beam computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2010;39:323335.
  • 31
    Roberts JA, Drage NA, Davies J, Thomas DW. Effective dose from cone beam CT examinations in dentistry. Br J Radiol 2009;82:3540.
  • 32
    Ludlow JB, Davies-Ludlow LE, Brooks SL, Howerton WB. Dosimetry of 3 CBCT devices for oral and maxillofacial radiology: CB Mercuray, NewTom 3G and i-CAT. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006;35:219226. Erratum in: Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006;35:392.
  • 33
    Horner K, Islam M, Flygare L, Tsiklakis K, Whaites E. Basic principles for use of dental cone beam computed tomography: consensus guidelines of the European Academy of Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2009;38:187195.
  • 34
    American College of Radiology. ACR Practice Guideline for Performing and Interpreting Diagnostic Computed Tomography. Available at: ‘’. Accessed 15 June 2011.
  • 35
    American College of Radiology. ACR Practice Guideline for Communication: Diagnostic Radiology. Available at: ‘’. Accessed 15 June 2011.