• Salmonella;
  • pig manure;
  • antibiotic resistance;
  • Escherichia coli;
  • genetic transfer


In a representative study, 380 manure samples of pig farms distributed all over Bavaria (Germany) were screened for the presence of Salmonella spp. at the time of manure application to soil using methods adapted to DIN EN ISO 6579. The isolates were tested according to DIN 58940 for their susceptibility towards 26 antimicrobial substances – such substances partly administered in animals, but mainly used in human therapy. Six out of 380 manure samples and, in addition, the only separated liquid manure sample examined, contained Salmonella isolates. Serotypes represented S. Typhimurium (n = 5), S. Derby (n = 1) and S. Infantis/S. Serogroup C1-(6,7:r:-)-form (each n = 1). Within the serovar S. Typhimurium, the most common phage type was DT104 (n = 3). All Salmonella isolates originated from ‘big’ farms (>30/45 sows on combined/breeding farms or >220 fattening pigs). Four out of six manure samples contained resistant isolates; all resistant Salmonellae were multi-resistant. Two out of three DT104-isolates showed the typical penta-resistance pattern often found in S. Typhimurium DT104, which was, furthermore, supplemented by other resistances. One Escherichia coli isolated together with a phage type DT104 S. Typhimurium also expressed the same penta-resistance pattern.