• Nipah virus;
  • Henipavirus;
  • Pteropus;
  • fruit bat;
  • Kalimantan;
  • Borneo


Compared to other viruses, research on Nipah virus has been limited in Indonesia because attributable disease outbreaks have not been reported. However, Nipah virus is a zoonotic Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agent, so strategic monitoring is prudent. Farmer interviews and a serologic survey of 610 pig sera and 99 bat sera from West Kalimantan province were conducted. Farmers reported no recent or historic encephalitic or respiratory disease in themselves, their families, workers or pigs. The survey found no evidence of exposure to Nipah virus in pigs. In contrast, 19% of the 84 Pteropus vampyrus bat sera reacted in the ELISA, but none of 15 Cynopterus brachyotis bats reacted.