Several highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from swine populations in Fujian Province, China, since 2001. Because it is thought that H5N1 infection in pigs might result in virus adaptation to humans, we surveyed swine populations in Fujian Province in 2004 and 2007 for serological evidence of the infection. Twenty-five pig farms covering all nine administrative districts of Fujian Province were sampled and a total of 1407 serum specimens were collected. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests revealed no evidence of H5 infection and only a few cases of H9 infection. The negative results for H5 infection were further verified by micro-neutralization tests. By contrast, H1 influenza virus infections were prevalent in swine in both surveys according to the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The H3 infection rate was reduced dramatically in 2007 compared with 2004, when examined by HI and ELISA. In summary, the results imply that the swine populations in Fujian Province had not been affected greatly by the H5N1 avian influenza virus, given that there is no serological evidence that H5N1 influenza virus has infected the pig populations. The reported isolates represent only sporadic cases.