The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Diagnosis of Bovine-Associated Parapoxvirus Infections in Humans: Molecular and Epidemiological Evidence
Article first published online: 16 FEB 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH
Zoonoses and Public Health
Volume 57, Issue 7-8, pages e161–164, December 2010
How to Cite
MacNeil, A., Lederman, E., Reynolds, M. G., Ragade, N. J., Talken, R., Friedman, D., Hall, W., Shwe, T., Li, Y., Zhao, H., Smith, S., Davidson, W., Hughes, C. and Damon, I. K. (2010), Diagnosis of Bovine-Associated Parapoxvirus Infections in Humans: Molecular and Epidemiological Evidence. Zoonoses and Public Health, 57: e161–164. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01317.x
The findings and conclusions in this report have not been formally disseminated by CDC and should not be construed as representing any agency or policy.
- Issue published online: 16 FEB 2010
- Article first published online: 16 FEB 2010
- Received for publication September 4, 2009
- Orf virus;
- pseudocowpox virus;
- bovine popular stomatitis virus;
- farmyard pox;
Orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus, are parapoxviruses, associated with domestic ruminants, which are capable of causing cutaneous infections in humans. Owing to virtually identical appearances in humans, clinical differentiation of these viruses is difficult. We discuss three recent occurrences of parapoxvirus infection, involving contact with domestic bovine and use a combination of molecular and epidemiological data in the diagnosis. These cases underscore the utility of modern diagnostic tools, along with species-specific contact information in acquiring a definitive diagnosis, in the case of suspected parapoxvirus infection.