Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Farm Program: Results from Finisher Pig Surveillance


Anne Deckert. Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS), Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, 160 Research Lane, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 5B2. Tel.: +519 826 2160; Fax: +519 826 2255; E-mail:


In 2006, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Farm Program was implemented in sentinel grower-finisher swine herds in Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Herds were visited 1–3 times annually. Faecal samples were collected from pens of close-to-market (CTM) weight (>80 kg) pigs and antimicrobial use (AMU) data were collected via questionnaires. Samples were cultured for generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This paper describes the findings of this program between 2006 and 2008. Eighty-nine, 115 and 96 herds participated in this program in 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. Over the 3 years, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) levels remained consistent. During this period, resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 56–63% of the Salmonella spp. isolates and 84–86% of E. coli isolates. Resistance to five or more antimicrobials was detected in 13–23% of Salmonella and 12–13% of E. coli. Resistance to drugs classified as very important to human health (Category I) by the Veterinary Drug Directorate (VDD), Health Canada, was less than or equal to 1% in both organisms. AMU data were provided by 100 herds in 2007 and 95 herds in 2008. Nine herds in 2007 and five herds in 2008 reported no AMU. The most common route of antimicrobial administration (75–79% of herds) was via feed, predominantly macrolides/lincosamides (66–68% of herds). In both 2007 and 2008, the primary reasons given for macrolide/lincosamide use were disease prevention, growth promotion and treatment of enteric disease. The Category I antimicrobials, ceftiofur and virginiamycin were not used in feed or water in any herds in 2008, but virginiamycin was used in feed in two herds in 2007. Parenteral ceftiofur was used in 29 herds (29%) in 2007 and 20 herds (21%) in 2008. The reasons for ceftiofur use included treatment of lameness, respiratory disease and enteric disease.