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Keywords:

  • Rabies;
  • case–control study;
  • risk factors

Summary

In China, we have witnessed an increasing incidence of rabies in recent years and the number of deaths ranked first among the 39 notifiable infectious diseases. We conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors for human rabies infection and disease to recommend prevention and treatment among people exposed to rabies. Exposure site, pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis were significantly associated with rabies infection. Exposure site at upper limb and trunk or at lower limb were at lower risk as compared with head-exposed patients. The OR was 0.09(95% CI: 0.009–0.93) and 0.01(95% CI: 0.001–0.115) respectively. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.03–0.11) and post-exposure prophylaxis (OR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01–0.40) were both protective factors as compared with no prophylaxis. For patients who had post-exposure prophylaxis, dose for the first injection and immunity procedure were significantly associated with rabies infection.