Twenty mammary lymph node samples were collected from cattle on a farm in the Republic of Korea. These cattle were serologically negative for Brucella by tube agglutination test (≤1 : 50) and serum agglutination test (≤1 : 50). Out of 20 lymph node samples, two samples were positive for Brucella growth on Brucella agar as well as blood agar. Tests for urease, hydrogen sulphide and reactions against monospecific sera A and M indicated that these two isolates (No. 15 and 16) belong to the genus Brucella. Genus specific, AMOS (abortus, melitensis, ovis, suis) and Bruce-ladder multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays confirmed the Brucella isolates as either a B. abortus or a B. canis strain. This is the first report of the occurrence of a B. canis infection in cattle in Korea. More survey data are needed to determine whether B. canis is a significant aetiology in the cases of cattle brucellosis in Korea.