Emerging and Exotic Zoonotic Disease Preparedness and Response in the United States – Coordination of the Animal Health Component
Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH
Zoonoses and Public Health
Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Zoonoses, 24–27 February 2011, Cancun,Mexico
Volume 59, Issue Supplement s2, pages 80–94, September 2012
How to Cite
Levings, R. L. (2012), Emerging and Exotic Zoonotic Disease Preparedness and Response in the United States – Coordination of the Animal Health Component. Zoonoses and Public Health, 59: 80–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01495.x
- Issue online: 7 SEP 2012
- Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012
- Received for publication December 26, 2011
- Agricultural Research Service, 2011. National veterinary stockpile foot and mouth disease countermeasure working group. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?accn_no=419983 (accessed October 18, 2011).
- 2003: The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J. Comp. Path. 129, 1–36. , , , and ,
- American Veterinary Medical Association, One Health Initiative Task Force, 2008. One health: a new professional imperative. Available at: http://www.avma.org/onehealth/onehealth_final.pdf (accessed November 6, 2011).
- 2010: Evaluation of a veterinary-based syndromic surveillance system implemented for swine. Can. J. Vet. Res. 74, 241–251. , , , and ,
- Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 2003. EMRS manual for routine FAD/EDI investigations. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ep/trainingCD/EMRS_for_Routine_FAD_Investigations.htm (accessed November 1, 2011).
- Anon, 2002a. Interstate movement of diseased animals and poultry generally prohibited. 9 CFR 71.3 (b).
- Anon, 2002b. The Animal Health Protection Act. P.L. 107-171, Title X, Subtitle E; 7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.
- Anon, 2005. Virus-Serum-Toxin Act or VST Act. P.L. 430 of 1913, as amended; 21 U.S.C. 151-159 et seq.
- Anon, 2006a: Action stations. Nature 441, 1028.
- Anon, 2006b. Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act. P.L. 109-417, 120 STAT. 2831.
- Anon, 2007. National Biosurveillance Integration Center; 6 U.S.C. 195b.
- Anon, 2009. Fear over H1N1 detection brings down swine disease samples. DVM Newsmagazine, September 25, 2009. Available at: http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/dvm/Veterinary+news/Fear-over-H1N1-detection-brings-down-swine-disease/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/629360?contextCategoryId=378 (accessed February 19, 2012).
- Anon, 2010. Standards for accredited veterinarian duties. 9 CFR 161.3.
- APHIS, 2009a. National veterinary stockpile planning guide for federal, state, and local authorities, version 2. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/nvs.shtml (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2009b. Veterinary services information technology roadmap: a new direction, paving the way for the future. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/vs_ocio/downloads/vs_it_roadmap.pdf (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2009c. News release: USDA issues conditional license for pandemic H1N1 vaccine for swine. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/content/2009/12/h1n1_vaccine.shtml (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2010a. FAD PReP framework. Available at: https://fad.prep.lmi.org (accessed October 26, 2011).
- APHIS, 2010b. 2009 Animal health report. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_health_report/index_2009.shtml (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2010c. Influenza surveillance in swine procedures manual. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_dis_spec/swine/siv_surv_manual.shtml (accessed November 2, 2011).
- APHIS, 2011a. Veterinary services: a new perspective. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/about_aphis/programs_offices/veterinary_services/downloads/vs2015/vs_new_perspective.pdf (accessed September 11, 2011).
- APHIS, 2011b. National veterinary stockpile and Navajo nation conduct successful logistics exercise. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/nvs_nn_fse_article.pdf (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2011c. Animal and animal product import: classical swine fever information. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/animals/animal_import/animal_imports_csf.shtml (accessed November 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2011d: Traceability for livestock moving interstate. 76 Federal Register 155, 50082–50110.
- APHIS, 2011e. National animal health laboratory network. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/nahln/ (accessed December 1, 2011).
- APHIS, 2011f. NAHERC strength as of July 2011. NAHERC Quarterly 1:3. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/volume_1_issue_4.pdf (accessed November 7, 2011).
- APHIS, 2012. Emergency management tools. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/emergency_response/tools/aphis_role_emergency_tools.shtml (accessed February 20, 2012).
- APHIS, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011. Select agents and toxins list. Available at: http://www.selectagents.gov/Select%20Agents%20and%20Toxins%20List.html (accessed October 12, 2011).
- 2009: Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus. Science 325, 204. doi: 10.1126/science.1172705. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 2007. Pathways assessment mapping tool aids in risk analysis. NAHSS Outlook 2007(2). Available at: http://nsu.aphis.usda.gov/outlook/issue14_apr07/outlook_apr_2007_pamt.pdf (accessed October 17, 2011). , and ,
- 2010. Traceability: a California perspective (presentation). Available at: http://www.animalagriculture.org/Solutions/Proceedings/Annual%20Conference/2010/Animal%20ID/Breitmeyer,%20Richard.pdf (accessed February 17, 2012). , , and ,
- CDC, 2008. Engagement through Biosurveillance. CDC global health e-brief. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/washington/EGlobalHealthEditions/eGlobalHealth0408.htm (accessed October 17, 2011).
- CDC, 2010. Novel influenza A virus infections. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/osels/ph_surveillance/nndss/casedef/novel_influenzaA.htm (accessed November 2, 2011).
- CDC, 2011. Emergency preparedness and response. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist-category.asp (accessed September 9, 2011).
- Center for Food Safety and Public Health, 2011. Emerging and exotic diseases of animals. Available at: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/EEDA-Course/ (accessed November 1, 2011).
- 2009. Florida State rift valley fever exercise and laboratory tactical exercise, report of the USAHA/AAVLD committee on animal emergency management. In Proceedings, 113th Annual Meeting, United States Animal Health Association, 2009. Richardson Printing, Kansas City, MO. ,
- 2002: Veterinary surveillance for zoonotic diseases in the United States. In: Burroughs, T., S., Knobler, and J. Lederberg (eds), The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases: Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health, pp. 90–98. National Acadamies Press, Washington, DC. ,
- 2010: Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community. Virol. J. 7, 313. doi :10.1186/1743-422X-7-313. , , , , and ,
- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 2006. Accelerated manufacturing of pharmaceuticals (AMP): solicitation number: BAA06-31. Available at: https://www.fbo.gov/index?tab=core&s=opportunity&mode=form&id=be83951ae201d2640b1928d64d7ca2a1 (accessed October 24, 2011).
- Economic Research Service, 2011. Farm income and costs: farm business income. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/FarmIncome/businessincome.htm (accessed October 23, 2011).
- 2010. Report of the USAHA/AAVLD Committee on Animal Health Surveillance and Information Systems. Available at: http://portals5.gomembers.com/Portals/6/Reports/2010/report-ahis-2010.pdf (accessed November 2, 2011). , and ,
- FAO, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), World Health Organization, 2011. GLEWS global early warning system for major animal diseases, including zoonoses. Available at: http://www.glews.net/ (accessed October 31, 2011).
- Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008a. National response framework. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-core.pdf (accessed November 2, 2011).
- FEMA, 2008b. Emergency support function #11 – agriculture and natural resources annex. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-11.pdf (accessed October 27, 2011).
- FEMA, 2009. National planning scenarios. FEMA Fact Sheet, Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/media/factsheets/2009/npd_natl_plan_scenario.pdf (accessed November 7, 2011).
- FEMA, 2011a. National preparedness goal. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/prepared/npg.pdf (accessed October 17, 2011).
- FEMA, 2011b. Homeland security exercise and evaluation program. Available at: https://hseep.dhs.gov/pages/1001_HSEEP7.aspx (accessed October 31, 2011).
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2011. EMPRES-i emergency prevention system. Available at: http://empres-i.fao.org/empres-i/home (accessed November 8, 2011).
- 2005: Rapid-response vaccines – does DNA offer a solution? Nature Biotech. 23, 1059–1062. ,
- GAO, 2010. Biosurveillance: Efforts to develop a national biosurveillance capability need a national strategy and a designated leader. Available at: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-645 (accessed February 17, 2012).
- GAO, 2011. Homeland security: actions needed to improve response to potential terrorist attacks and natural disasters affecting food and agriculture (GAO-11-652). Available at: http://www.gao.gov/Products/GAO-11-652 (accessed November 6, 2011).
- 2009: ‘One World – One Health’ and the global challenge of epidemic diseases of viral aetiology. Vet. Ital. 45, 35–44. , and ,
- 2009: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children – Southern California, March–April 2009. MMWR Weekly 58, 400–402. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 2007. Operation Palo Duro: policy and decision-making in response to an FMD outbreak. (IPR) 12285. Available at: http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/emergency/May2007_OperationPaloDuro.pdf (accessed February 22, 2012). , , , , and ,
- 2008: A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy. BMC Infect. Dis., 8, 36. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-36. , , , , and ,
- Government Accountability Office (GAO), 2007. National Animal Identification System: USDA needs to resolve several key implementation isssues to achieve rapid and effective disease traceback (GAO-07-592). Available at: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-07-592 (accessed February 17, 2012).
- 2008: Evidence for avian influenza A infections among Iowa’s agricultural workers. Influenza Other Respir. Viruses 2, 61–69. , , , , , and ,
- National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense Advisory Group, 2011: Potential effects of Rift Valley fever in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17, 8. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/17/8/101088.htm (accessed November 1, 2011). , , , , , and
- 2007: The North American animal disease spread model: a simulation model to assist decision making in evaluating animal disease incursions. Prev. Vet. Med. 82, 176–197. , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 2007. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/922093. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - UCRL-TR-234981, pp, 1–55. , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 1985: Circulation of influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in waterfowl originating from two different areas of North America. Bull. World Health Org. 63, 711–719. , , , , and ,
- Iowa State University, University of California Davis, and University of Minnesota. 2011, Secure milk supply. Available at: http://securemilksupply.org/partners.php (accessed October 31 2011).
- 2009. When, not if, disaster strikes. Available at: http://beefmagazine.com/business/0601-arizona-livestock-incident-response-team/ (accessed October 23, 2011). ,
- 2001: Generation of a highly pathogenic Avian Influenza A virus from an avirulent field isolate by passaging in chickens. J. Virol. 75, 4439–4443. , , , , , , , and ,
- 2002: Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for Canada. Can. Vet. J. 43, 349–354. , , , , , and ,
- 2007: Confronting zoonoses through closer collaboration between medicine and veterinary medicine (as ‘one medicine’). Vet. Ital. 43, 5–19. , , and ,
- 2008: Evaluation of pathways for release of Rift Valley fever virus into domestic ruminant livestock, ruminant wildlife, and human populations in the continental United States. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 232, 514–529. , , , and ,
- 2005: Defining law enforcement’s role in protecting American agriculture from agroterrorism. Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/212280.pdf (accessed February 17, 2012). , , , , , , and ,
- 2007: A dynamic, optimal disease control model for foot-and-mouth disease: I. Model description. Prev. Vet. Med. 79, 257–273. , , , and ,
- 2011: Chemical disinfection of high-consequence transboundary animal disease viruses on nonporous surfaces. Biologicals 39, 231–235. , , , , and ,
- 2008: Pathogen discovery. PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000002. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000002. ,
- Maryland Department of Agriculture, 2011: Zoonotic and other animal diseases of concern in Maryland. Maryland One Health Bulletin 1, 1.
- 2006: Egg-based production of influenza vaccine: 30 years of commercial experience. The Bridge 36, 17–24. ,
- 2005: Integrated human-animal disease surveillance. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11, 1490–1491. , and ,
- 2011: A microbial platform for rapid and low-cost virus-like particle and capsomere vaccines. Vaccine 29, 7154–7162. , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 1998: Emerging zoonoses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 429–435. ,
- 2007: Cases of swine influenza in humans: a review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44, 1084–1088. , , and ,
- 2011: Swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) virus infection in two children – Indiana and Pennsylvania, July–August 2011. MMWR 60, 1213–1215. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- National Agiculture Biosecurity Center Consortium, 2004. Carcass disposal: a comprehensive review. Available at: http://fss.k-state.edu/FeaturedContent/CarcassDisposal/CarcassDisposal.htm (accessed February 20, 2012).
- National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense, 2011. Information dashboard framework (IDF): fact sheet. Available at: http://fazd.tamu.edu/files/2010/05/FACT-SHEET-information-dashboards-9.2011.pdf (accessed November 2, 2011).
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, 2007. NIAID strategic plan for biodefense research, 2007 update. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/BiodefenseRelated/Biodefense/Documents/biosp2007.pdf (accessed February 19, 2012).
- OIE, 2009a. Event summary: 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza, United States of America. Available at: http://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summary&reportid=8613 (accessed November 6, 2011).
- OIE, 2009b. World animal health information Database (WAHID) – Version: 1.4. Available at: http://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=home (accessed November 5, 2011).
- OIE, 2010: Notification of diseases and epidemiological information. In: Thiermann, A., , , , and (ed.), Chapter 1.1 in Terrestrial Animal Health Code, pp. 1–3. World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris, France.
- OIE, 2011a. OIE Listed Diseases. Available at: http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/oie-listed-diseases-2011/ (accessed November 6, 2011).
- OIE, 2011b. Notification of animal and human diseases: global legal basis. Available at: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Current_Scientific_Issues/docs/pdf/notification-EN.pdf (accessed October 16, 2011).
- 2009: Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks. Vet. Ital. 45, 23–24. , , and ,
- 2012: Update: influenza A (H3N2)v transmission and guidelines – five states, 2011. MMWR 60, 1741–1744. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 2009: Foot and mouth disease virus vaccines. Vaccine 27, D90–D94. , and ,
- 2007: Recommendations of the OIE international conference on the control of infectious animal diseases by vaccination, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 13 to 16 April 2004. Rev. Sci. Tech. 26, 519–521. , and ,
- 2009: Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005–2009. N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 2616–2625. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and ,
- 2003: Sequence analysis of recent H7 avian influenza viruses associated with three different outbreaks in commercial poultry in the United States. J. Virol. 77, 13399–13402. , , , and ,
- 2006: Detecting emerging diseases in farm animals through clinical observations. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 204–210. , , , , , , and ,
- World Health Organization, 2005: International Health Regulations (2005), 2nd edn. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
- 2002. Animal Disease Surveillance: A Framework for Supporting Disease Detection in Public Health. White Paper WHP027. Scientific Technologies Corp., Tucson, AZ. , and ,