A Study of Risk Factors for Infection with HPAI H5N1 in Small Poultry Farms in Thailand Using a Questionnaire Survey

Authors

  • J. Siengsanan-Lamont,

    1.  School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia
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  • I. D. Robertson,

    1.  School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia
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  • S. D. Blacksell,

    1.  School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia
    2.  Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    3.  Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
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  • T. Ellis,

    1.  School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia
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  • S. Saengchoowong,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • S. Suwanpukdee,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • P. Yongyuttawichai,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • K. Cheewajorn,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • J. Jangjaras,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • K. Chaichoun,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • W. Wiriyarat,

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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  • P. Ratanakorn

    1.  The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Thailand
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J. Siengsanan-Lamont. School of Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. Tel.: +61424587156; E-mail: hjjar@yahoo.com

Summary

A questionnaire was used to collect data on small poultry farm management and wild bird observed in poultry keeping areas to identify putative risk factors for infection with HPAI H5N1. The study was conducted in 2008 in four subdistricts of central Thailand that had experienced outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in poultry. Descriptive and inferential analyses including univariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify putative risk factors. Risk factors included purchasing native chickens/fighting cocks from commercial hatcheries, replacing or restocking birds individually, and observing lesser whistling ducks (Dendrocygna javanica) on the farm daily. Selecting healthy animals when purchasing animals to ensure that they were disease free was a protective factor. To fully understand the epidemiology of infection of small poultry farms with HPAI H5N1, control of movement of domestic poultry and serological and virological testing of the poultry population should be applied.

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