Status of Foot-and-mouth Disease in India


B. Pattnaik. Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease, Mukteswar, Nainital-263 138, Uttarakhand, India. Tel.: +91 5942 286004; Fax: +91 5942 286307; E-mail:


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in India and causes severe economic loss. Status of FMD in the country for five fiscal years is presented. Outbreaks were more in number in 2007–2008 than 2010–2011. Three serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and Asia1) are prevalent. Serotype O was responsible for 80% of the confirmed outbreaks/cases, whereas Asia1 and A caused 12% and 8%, respectively. Geographical region-wise assessment indicated varying prevalence rate in different regions viz; 43% in Eastern region, 31.5% in Southern region, 11.6% in North-eastern region, 5% Central region, 4.4% Western region and 4% in Northern region. Highest number of outbreaks/cases was recorded in the month of September and lowest in June. Emergence and re-emergence of different genotypes/lineages within the serotypes were evident in real-time investigation carried out from time to time. Continues antigenic divergence in serotype A resulted in change in the vaccine strain in 2009. As on date, all genetic diversity within the serotypes is well tolerated by the vaccine strains. Unrestricted animal movements in the country play a major role in the spread of FMD.