Beginning in 2006, point infection control operations and aerial distribution of oral rabies vaccines along the US border were performed in Quebec, Canada, to control the potential spread of raccoon rabies. A benefit-cost analysis assessed the economic efficiency of this rabies control programme into the future. In this study, a mathematical simulation model was used to determine the potential spread of raccoon rabies from the 2006 index case, and incidence rates of human post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), animal testing and human exposure investigations were calculated. Benefits were calculated as the potential savings from reduced numbers of human PEP, animal testing and human exposure investigations owing to control, which ranged from $47 million to $53 million. Programme cost scenarios were based on projections of total expenditures, which ranged from $33 million to $49 million. Economic efficiency was indicated for approximately half of the modelled scenarios, with the greatest benefit-cost ratios resulting from reduced future programme costs.