The first successful living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed in a child in 1989 in Brisbane, Australia and in an adult in 1994 by the Shinshu group. Over the past few years, LDLT has increased worldwide and is now an established alternative to deceased-donor liver transplantation. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major indications for LDLT. At present, however, there are no universally adoptedselection criteria in potential candidates for LDLT. In our institution, patients were selected based on a tumor number of five or fewer and a maximum diameter of less than 5 cm with 3-year survival of 82%.