We report a case of a HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-co-infected patient to whom entecavir (ETV) was administered initially before the notification regarding the potential mutagenesis effect on HIV against the nucleoside analog. Since initial evaluations indicated the advanced stage of chronic hepatitis B and preserved numbers of peripheral CD4+ lymphocytes without the manifestation of immunodeficiency, priority was given to the management of HBV. We started HBV therapy with ETV at a dose of 0.5 mg daily without using any HIV drugs. The viral loads of both HBV and HIV-1 decreased gradually during the 5 months following the initial administration of ETV. HBV was well controlled by the gradual replacement of ETV with highly-active antiretroviral therapy against HIV with a regimen including atazanavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. HBV was genotyped as A2 with the quasispecies pool consisting of the −1G precore/core deletion mutant strain.
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