This article reviews recent translational research on the development of cell therapy using autologous bone marrow cell for liver cirrhosis patients. A clinical study of autologous bone marrow cell infusion (ABMI) therapy for liver cirrhosis patient was begun on Nov. 14, 2003. We previously reported nine liver cirrhosis (LC) cases that underwent ABMI from the peripheral vein and followed their progress up to 24 weeks. Subjects were LC patients with total bilirubin TB of < 3.0 mg/dL, platelets > 5 (1010/L) and no viable hepatocellular carcinoma on diagnostic imaging. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were separated by cell washing and were infused via the peripheral vein. After ABMI therapy liver function and Child-Pugh Score were significantly improved at 4 weeks and 24 weeks (P < 0.05). A total of 23 cases of ABMI therapy have been performed for LC patients to date. No major adverse effects were noted due to ABMI therapy. In conclusion, ABMI therapy should be considered as a novel treatment for LC patients.