Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for approximately 600 000–700 000 deaths worldwide. It is highly prevalent in the Asia–Pacific region and Africa, and is increasing in Western countries. The evidence-based guideline for HCC in Japan was published in 2005 and revised in 2009. Apart from this guideline, a consensus-based practice manual proposed by the HCC expert panel of the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH), which reflects widely accepted daily practice in Japan, was published in 2007. At the occasion of the 45th Annual meeting of the JSH in Kobe 4–5 June 2009, a consensus meeting of HCC was held. Consensus statements were createdbased on 67% agreement of 200 expert members.This article describes the up-to-date consensus statements which largely reflect the real world HCC practice in Japan. We believe readers of this article will gain the newest knowledge and deep insight on the management of HCC proposed by consensus of the HCC expert members of JSH.