Recently, much progress has been made in the field of hepatitis B, such as natural history of the disease in relation to the amount of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, genotypes of HBV influencing the natural course and treatment effects, mutations of HBV influencing the severity of the disease and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and antiviral treatment such as nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon. To make the consensus for the diagnosis, management and treatment of hepatitis B, a meeting was held during 45th annual meeting of Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) in June 2009. In the meeting, recommendations and informative statements were discussed on the following subjects: (i) natural history of HBV infection; (ii) clinical implication of HBV genotypes; (iii) HBV mutations and their potential impact on pathogenesis of HBV infection; (iv) indications for antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B; (v) nucleos(t)ide analogues for chronic hepatitis B; and (vi) interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The presenters reviewed the data on these subjects and proposed the consensus statements and recommendations. These statements were discussed among the organizers and presenters, and were approved by the participants of the meeting. In the current report, the relevant data were reviewed and the 12 consensus statements and nine recommendations on chronic hepatitis B were described.