Aim: In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because the etiology of HCC has been changing recently.
Methods: Consecutive 1374 HCC patients at our institution from 1995 to 2009 were enrolled and clinical characteristics were investigated.
Results: Seventeen percent and 67% of HCC were related to hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC) and hepatitis C virus (HCV-HCC), respectively. Fifteen percent of that was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCVAb) (NBNC-HCC). HCV-HCC tended to decrease and NBNC-HCC tended to increase in recent years. Patients with NBNC-HCC and HCV-HCC were significantly older than those with HBV-HCC. The complication rates of diabetes mellitus (DM), heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in NBNC-HCC were significantly higher than those in other groups. Furthermore, the platelet counts and body mass index in NBNC-HCC were significantly higher than those of other groups. Among 209 NBNC-HCC patients, 58 patients underwent hepatic resection in which 29%, 36%, and 35% of those were based on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), heavy alcohol consumption, and unknown etiology, respectively. DM was prevalent especially in NASH and heavy alcohol consumption. Cirrhosis was detected in 65%, 81%, and 15% in NASH-HCC, heavy alcohol consumption-HCC, and unknown etiology, respectively.
Conclusions: NBNC-HCC has gradually been increasing in recent years. The present study elucidated that the presence of NASH and metabolic syndrome were important risk factors for NBNC-HCC and suggests that these patients should receive surveillance for HCC development.