Accepted by Ferdinand A. Gul. An earlier draft of this paper was entitled “Audit Partner Specialization, Audit Fees, and Auditor-Client Alignments”. I appreciate the comments received from Ferdinand A. Gul (the associate editor), two anonymous reviewers, Pekka Alatalo (KPMG Finland), Jean C. Bedard (discussant), Andy Conlin, Ann Gaeremynck, Kaarina Halonen (PWC Finland), Seppo Ikäheimo, Henry Jarva, Juha Joenväärä, Juha-Pekka Kallunki, Eija Kangas (KPMG Finland), Robert Knechel, Anna-Maija Lantto, Christophe Van Linden, Lasse Niemi, Henrik Nilsson, Mervi Niskanen, Jukka Perttunen, Peter Pope, Markku Rahiala, Veijo Riistama (PWC Finland), Petri Sahlström, Stefan Sundgren, Risto Tuppurainen, Sofie Vandenbogaerde, Ann Vanstraelen, Markku Vieru, Marleen Willekens, and Erik Åström (Ernst & Young Sweden). I would also like to thank the participants at the 24th Contemporary Accounting Research Conference in Montreal Canada (2009), AFI seminar at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (2011) and the AFAR workshop in Vaasa (2008) for their comments. I wish to thank Tuomas Anttila, Marja Kauppinen, and Harri Lempola for their excellent research assistance. Financial support received from the NASDAQ OMX Nordic Foundation, the Finnish Foundation for the Advancement of Securities Markets, the Foundation for Economic Education, the Ostrobothnia Cultural Foundation, and the Finnish Cultural Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. This research is part of research projects by the Academy of Finland (Grant Numbers 140000 and 126630). All remaining errors are mine alone.