Mr. Wells is a doctoral student in geography at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. 66506.
SEPARATE BUT EQUAL? DESEGREGATING BALTIMORE'S GOLF COURSES*
Article first published online: 21 APR 2010
2008 American Geographical Society
Volume 98, Issue 2, pages 151–170, April 2008
How to Cite
Wells, J. E., Buckley, G. L. and Boone, C. G. (2008), SEPARATE BUT EQUAL? DESEGREGATING BALTIMORE'S GOLF COURSES. Geographical Review, 98: 151–170. doi: 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2008.tb00294.x
This research was supported by two grants from the National Science Foundation: deb 0423476 and sbe-hsd 0624159. We thank Craig Colten and two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments and sage advice.
- Issue published online: 21 APR 2010
- Article first published online: 21 APR 2010
- civil rights;
- environmental justice;
ABSTRACT. Between the time of its opening, in 1923, and 1956, when the last vestiges of official segregation were swept away by the courts, the Carroll Park Municipal Golf Course in Baltimore, Maryland, figured prominently in the struggle to desegregate the city's recreational facilities. In this article we use historical sources to examine how access to Carroll Park was shaped by issues of race and ethnicity during the first half of the twentieth century, focusing specifically on the role the park played in the struggle to desegregate Baltimore's golf courses. We also consider how this victory ultimately contributed to desegregation at the city's other recreational facilities, including ball fields and swimming pools.