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Keywords:

  • Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge;
  • ecological restoration;
  • hybrid geographies;
  • military base closure

abstract.

Since 1988 the United States has closed nearly two dozen major military installations and reclassified them as national wildlife refuges. By presenting a case study of one site of military-to-wildlife conversion, this article examines the formation of these places and the implications of casting military practices and environmental conservation as compatible activities. As lands where military and environmental attributes can be perceived as inseparable, military-to-wildlife sites exemplify hybrid geographies that challenge dualistic notions of nature and society.