In authoring this second article on poppies for the Geographical Review, I again am indebted to the forty retired poppy farmers who provided me with the wealth of their experiences and memories and to my research assistants Yüksel, Zuhal, and Augie. I am also most grateful for the suggestions made by several anonymous reviewers and by Craig Colten. My research was supported by the Center for the Advanced Study of International Development, Women and International Development, and Muslim Studies, all at Michigan State University. Additionally, though not employed directly in the research for this article, this study was also informed by opportunities to review archival and document collections pertaining to the period of eradication held in the Washington, D.C., area that were made possible through a short-term fellowship administered by the Kennan Institute of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in the summer of 2008.
“POPPIES ARE DEMOCRACY!” A CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS OF OPIUM ERADICATION AND REINTRODUCTION IN TURKEY*
Article first published online: 7 SEP 2011
© 2011 by the American Geographical Society of New York
Volume 101, Issue 3, pages 299–315, July 2011
How to Cite
EVERED, K. T. (2011), “POPPIES ARE DEMOCRACY!” A CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS OF OPIUM ERADICATION AND REINTRODUCTION IN TURKEY. Geographical Review, 101: 299–315. doi: 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2011.00098.x
- Issue published online: 7 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 7 SEP 2011
- critical geopolitics;
- opium poppy;
- oral history;
Historical scholarship in traditional geopolitics often relied on documents authored by states and by other influential actors. Although much work in the subfield of critical geopolitics thus far has addressed imbalances constructed in official, academic, and popular media due to a privileging of such narratives, priority might also be given to unearthing and bringing to light alternative geopolitical perspectives from otherwise marginalized populations. Utilizing the early-1970s case of the United States' first “war on drugs,” this article examines the geopolitics of opium-poppy eradication and its consequences within Turkey. Employing not only archival and secondary sources but also oral histories from now-retired poppy farmers, this study examines the diffusion of U.S. antinarcotics policies into the Anatolian countryside and the enduring impressions that the United States and Turkish government created. In doing so, this research gives voice to those farmers targeted by eradication policies and speaks more broadly to matters of narcotics control, sentiments of anti-Americanism, and notions of democracy in Turkey and the region, past and present.