This article is a product of my Ph.D. dissertation. I wish to thank Turkish and Greek colleagues I have met during these years, my tutors at University of Genoa, Faculty of Architecture, and my mentor Maurice Cerasi. Moreover, I deeply appreciated the advice of my colleague Paolo Girardelli when I started to write this article, the excellent job of anonymous reviewers with editors Henry Sivak and Thomas Puleo, the support of the Yeditepe Writing Center, and close friends who helped me.
Urban Identities and Catastrophe: Izmir and Salonica at the End of the Ottoman Empire†
Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the American Geographical Society of New York
Volume 103, Issue 4, pages 498–516, October 2013
How to Cite
Bugatti, E. (2013), Urban Identities and Catastrophe: Izmir and Salonica at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Geographical Review, 103: 498–516. doi: 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2013.00017.x
- Issue published online: 16 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013
- Ottoman Empire ;
- catastrophe ;
- fire ;
- Izmir ;
- Salonica ;
- Turkey ;
Two huge fires dramatically influenced the urban development of Salonica and Izmir, in 1917 and in 1922, respectively. These catastrophes occurred after the Ottoman Empire fell, and Salonica and Izmir had shifted into new national contexts. The fires mainly destroyed the districts that were transformed during the late-Ottoman period. These districts became the cosmopolitan façades of modern Izmir and Salonica. The post-fires' tabula rasa provided an opportunity for Greek and Turkish politicians and European planners to change the urban identity of both cities. Moreover, the Lausanne Treaty of 1923 transformed their multicultural societies also. Reconstruction plans had been thought to de-Ottomanize and remove the previous idea of the towns and their multiplicity, interpreting new cultural and nationalist feeling. Here, I emphasize how modernity was interpreted before and after the fires, and point out contradictions between ideological aspects of planning and how the first urban districts were built during the 1920s.