1. Hofstra University, Frank G. Zarb School of Business, 134 Hofstra University, Department of Management, Hempstead, New York 11549
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      Emre Veral is associate professor of operations management at Baruch College, Zicklin School of Business. He obtained his Ph.D. in industrial management at Clemson University. His research interests include health care operations, scheduling systems, and international business codes and compliance. He serves as Senior Research Fellow at the International Center for Corporate Accountability, housed at Baruch College. He is a member of Decision Sciences Institute, and the Production and Operations Management Society. His publications have previously appeared in Decision Sciences, Journal of Operations Management, Production and Inventory Management Journal, Computers and Industrial Engineering, and various trade journals.


    1. Baruch College, CUNY, Zicklin School of Business, 17 Lexington Avenue, Department of Management B9-240, New York, New York 10010
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      Tugba Cayirli is a Special Assistant Professor of Operations Management at Hofstra University. She is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Management Planning and Information Systems at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York. Her research interests include health care applications of management science, scheduling, queuing systems, and quality management.


This paper provides a comprehensive survey of research on appointment scheduling in outpatient services. Effective scheduling systems have the goal of matching demand with capacity so that resources are better utilized and patient waiting times are minimized. Our goal is to present general problem formulation and modeling considerations, and to provide taxonomy of methodologies used in previous literature. Current literature fails to develop generally applicable guidelines to design appointment systems, as most studies have suggested highly situation-specific solutions. We identify future research directions that provide opportunities to expand existing knowledge and close the gap between theory and practice.