Abstract A 4-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever was presented to the oncology service of the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for staging of a histiocytic sarcoma of the left forelimb, diagnosed on the basis of biopsies submitted by the referring veterinarian. Cytologic assessment of aspirates of 2 splenic nodules identified on ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen revealed a highly phagocytic population of neoplastic round cells morphologically suggestive of plasma cells. Histologic assessment of the forelimb mass after amputation of the limb revealed a neoplastic round cell population demonstrating extensive cytophagia and erythrophagia. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor population revealed it to be negative for BLA.36 with sporadic positivity for lysozyme and CD79a. Immunofluorescent evaluation revealed weak tumor cell positivity for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgM, but extensive strong positivity for IgG, confirming the plasma cell origin of the tumor. Although extensive phagocytic activity may strongly suggest histiocytic origin, plasma cell origin must also be considered among the differential diagnoses for phagocytic round cell tumors.